Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.25(1) > 1143479

Korean J Community Nutr. 2020 Feb;25(1):1-12. Korean.
Published online Feb 29, 2020.
Copyright © 2020 The Korean Society of Community Nutrition
Analysis of Factors Affecting Breakfast Eating Behavior of Children in Indonesia: An Application of the Health Belief Model
Ran Yi Kang,1 Soo Jin Lee,1 and Ho Kyung Ryu2
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, Graduate Student.
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University, Research Institute of Ecology, Busan, Korea, Professor.

Corresponding author: Ho Kyung Ryu. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea. Tel: (051) 510-7397, Fax: (051) 583-3648, Email:
Received Aug 20, 2019; Revised Jan 29, 2020; Accepted Jan 30, 2020.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study investigates the current state of consuming breakfast among elementary school students residing in Malang, East Java, Indonesia, and to identify factors that influence breakfast behavior.


The research model was set up as per the health belief model, and slightly modified by adding the subjective normative factors of the theory of planned behavior. The survey was conducted from July 17 to August 15, 2017 using a questionnaire, after receiving the permission PNU IRB (2017_60_HR).


The subjects were 77 boys (49.4%) and 79 girls (50.6%) suffering from malnutrition with anemia (21.2%) and stunting ratio of Height for Age Z Score (HAZ) (11.5%). Furthermore, moderate weakness (14.8%) and overweight and obesity (12.3%) by Body Mass Index for Age Z Score (BMIZ) were coexistent. According to the results obtained for breakfast, 21.8% did not eat breakfast before school, with 18.8% of the reasons for skipping breakfast being attributed to lack of food. Even for subjects partaking breakfast, only about 10% had a good balanced diet. The average score of behavioral intention on eating breakfast was 2.60 ± 0.58. The perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy of the health belief model correlated with breakfast behavior. Of these, self-efficacy (β=0.447, R2=0.200) and perceived sensitivity (β=0.373, R2=0.139) had the greatest effect on breakfast behavior. Mother was the largest impact person among children.


In order to increase the level of breakfast behavior intention among children surveyed in Indonesia, we determined the effectiveness by focus on education which helps the children recognize to be more likely to get sick when they don't have breakfast, and increase their confidence in ability to have breakfast on their own. We believe there is a necessity to seek ways to provide indirect intervention through mothers, as well as impart direct nutrition education to children.

Keywords: breakfast eating behavior; health beliefs model; Indonesia; elementary school students


Fig. 1
The study model based on health belief model and theory of planned behavior
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Table 1
General characteristics of subjects
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Table 2
Growth and development status and anemia of the subjects
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Table 3
Breakfast eating status of subjects
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Table 4
Types of foods for breakfast
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Table 5
Behavioral intention on eating breakfast
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Table 6
Health beliefs on eating breakfast
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Table 7
Subjective norms on eating breakfast
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Table 8
Correlation between constructs of health beliefs, subject norms, or behavioral intention on eating breakfast
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Table 9
Association between health beliefs and behavioral intention on eating breakfast
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