Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(6) > 1142012

J Nutr Health. 2019 Dec;52(6):569-580. Korean.
Published online Dec 26, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.6.569
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Association of Korean fermented cabbage kimchi consumption with an incidence of metabolic syndrome: 10-year follow-up results of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Suk Hyeon Seo, Jiyoun Hong, Im Huei Son, Young Hee Han and Taisun Hyun
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-43-261-2790, Email: taisun@cbnu.ac.kr
Received Nov 16, 2019; Revised Nov 29, 2019; Accepted Nov 29, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the associations of Korean fermented cabbage kimchi consumption with the incidence risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean adults.

Methods

We used the community-based cohort data from the 2001 ~ 2012 Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). General characteristics, food group frequencies and nutrient intakes at baseline from 3,560 healthy individuals aged 40 ~ 69 years and the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its component from 2,259 participants, after excluding the data with incomplete anthropometric and blood test, during 10-year follow-up were analyzed. The participants were classified into three groups according to their daily consumption frequency of Korean fermented cabbage kimchi: ‘less than once (< 1/day)’, ‘once or twice (1 ~ 2/day)’, and ‘three times (3/day)’.

Results

After controlling for potential confounders such as age, education, income, residence area, alcohol drinking and energy intake, the consumption frequencies of rice and legumes were significantly higher, and the consumption frequency of meat was significantly lower in the 3/day group compared to that of the other two groups in men and women. The average intakes of energy and most nutrients, except fat and cholesterol, were higher in the 3/day group compared to those of the other two groups in men and women. Frequent consumption of kimchi was associated with a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in all the models (unadjusted, age-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted models) in women. When examining the multivariable-adjusted model, the hazard ratio for metabolic syndrome was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47 ~ 0.86) for the 3/day group compared to that of the < 1/day group in women. However, there was no significant association between kimchi consumption and the incidence of metabolic syndrome in men.

Conclusion

Our results show that consumption of kimchi at every meal was significantly associated with a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in women.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome; incidence; longitudinal studies; food; nutrients

Figures


Fig. 1
Flowchart of participant selection for analysis.
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Tables


Table 1
Baseline characteristics of participants according to kimchi consumption
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Table 2
Baseline food group consumption frequencies according to kimchi consumption
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Table 3
Baseline intakes of energy and nutrients according to kimchi consumption
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Table 4
The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome and its components according to kimchi consumption
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