Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(6) > 1142009

J Nutr Health. 2019 Dec;52(6):540-551. Korean.
Published online Dec 26, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.6.540
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
High fiber and high carbohydrate intake and its association with the metabolic disease using the data of KNHANES 2013 ~ 2017
Heesoo Moon, Kyungho Ha and YoonJu Song
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi 14662, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-2164-4681, Email: yjsong@catholic.ac.kr
Received May 09, 2019; Revised Sep 24, 2019; Accepted Oct 30, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

Dietary fiber is a component of carbohydrate that is linked closely with the carbohydrate quality, but few studies have investigated the association of high fiber intake with the cardiometabolic risk factors in Koreans. This study examined the association of high fiber and high carbohydrate intake with the cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults.

Methods

This study included 15,095 adults aged ≥20 years, who participated in the 2013 ~ 2017 KNHANES. The dietary intake was obtained using a 24-h dietary recall method. The associations of high fiber and high carbohydrate intake with metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia were examined by sex using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

The median of dietary fiber was 23.6 g/day in men and 20.0 g/day in women. Dietary fiber intake increased gradually as dietary carbohydrate groups increased except for ≥80% of energy from the carbohydrate group. Women in the highest quintile of fiber intake showed a 33% lower risk of metabolic syndrome compared with those in the third quintile. When stratified into low fiber (LF) and high fiber (HF) groups using Adequate Intake of fiber for Koreans, men in the third quartile of carbohydrate intake showed a 44% and 51% higher risk of metabolic syndrome and atherogenic dyslipidemia than in the first quartile, respectively, but only in the LF group. Women in the second quartile of carbohydrate intake showed an 83% higher risk of hypercholesterolemia than in the first quartile in the LF group. On the other hand, as no significant association was observed between the carbohydrate intake and metabolic diseases among the HF groups in both sexes.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that a high fiber intake might be associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and high carbohydrate intake with a low dietary fiber intake might be associated with an increased risk of several metabolic abnormalities among Korean adults. Further prospective studies will be needed to confirm the effects of high fiber and high carbohydrate intake on the cardiometabolic risk factors among Koreans.

Keywords: dietary fiber; dietary carbohydrate; metabolic syndrome; dyslipidemia; Korean adults

Figures


Fig. 1
Distribution of dietary fiber intake (A) and dietary fiber intake according to dietary carbohydrate (B). All models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education, house income, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, and appropriate sampling weight was applied for the complex sampling design. p for trend were obtained from linear regression analysis.
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Fig. 2
The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals of metabolic syndrome according to the quintile of dietary fiber intake by sex. All models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education, house income, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, and appropriate sampling weight was applied for the complex sampling design. Odds ratios were obtained from multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, body mass index, education, household income, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake. p for trend were obtained from the same model as estimation of ORs by using the median dietary fiber intake of each quintile as the independent variable.
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of study participants by sex
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Table 2
Energy and macronutrient intakes according to quartile of dietary carbohydrate intake by sex in low or high fiber group1)2)
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Table 3
Multivariate odds ratios for metabolic disease according to quartile of dietary carbohydrate intake among men in low or high fiber group1)2)
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Table 4
Multivariate odds ratios for metabolic disease according to quartile of dietary carbohydrate intake among women in low or high fiber group1)2)
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Notes

This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017R1A2B1008420) and by the Catholic University of Korea, Research Fund, 2019.

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