Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(5) > 1136454

J Nutr Health. 2019 Oct;52(5):475-487. Korean.
Published online Oct 30, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.5.475
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Current status, perception and practicability of restaurant staffs related to reducing sodium use in Seongnam, Korea
So-Hyun Ahn,1 Jong Sook Kwon,1 Kyungmin Kim,2 Yoonna Lee,1 and Hye-Kyeong Kim3
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Shingu College, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13174, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Baewha Women's University, Seoul 03039, Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi 14662, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-202164-4314, Email: hkyeong@catholic.ac.kr
Received Jul 30, 2019; Revised Sep 23, 2019; Accepted Sep 24, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

With the increase of going out to eat, reducing the sodium in restaurant foods has a crucial impact on reducing sodium intake. This study aimed to assess the current status and perceptions of restaurant staffs related to reducing sodium use in restaurants.

Methods

Restaurant managers and chefs (n = 312) in Seongnam area completed a questionnaire on the current status related to sodium use, the barriers to practice for reducing sodium use, support needs, and the practicability of methods for reducing sodium use in restaurants.

Results

The percentage of restaurants in the preaction stage (including the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages) for reducing sodium use was 79.7%. Logistic regression analysis showed that measuring salinity while cooking was associated with measuring seasoning (OR, 4.761; 95% CI, 2.325 ~ 9.751), action/maintenance stages of behavior change (OR, 2.829; 95% CI, 1.449 ~ 5.525) and providing salinity information of restaurant foods (OR, 6.314; 95% CI, 2.964 ~ 13.45). Maintaining taste and hindering the cooking process were the main barriers to reduce sodium use. The total practicability of actions for reducing sodium was higher in staffs who worked in restaurants that measured seasoning and salinity while cooking (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The hardest item to practice was ‘purchase foods after comparing sodium content in the nutrition labeling’. ‘Avoid serving salt-fermented foods as side dishes’, ‘serve small portions of kimchi and less salty kimchi’, and ‘put up promotional materials for reducing sodium intake’ were selected as easy items to perform. The majority (82%) was willing to reduce sodium in restaurant foods under the support of local government and they desired the promotion of participating restaurants and education on cooking skills to reduce sodium.

Conclusion

Measuring seasoning and salinity while cooking is a meaningful practice that is associated with stages of behavior change and the practicability of actions for reducing sodium. It is necessary to provide support and education with a gradual approach to staffs for reducing sodium in restaurant foods.

Keywords: sodium reduction; restaurants; salinity; perception; practice

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of the participants
Click for larger image


Table 2
Recognition of social environment and current status related to reducing sodium intake
Click for larger image


Table 3
Logistic regression analysis of correlating variables with measuring salt or salinity
Click for larger image


Table 4
Positive outcome expectancies and barriers to reduce sodium use in restaurants
Click for larger image


Table 5
Practicability of actions for reducing sodium use in restaurants
Click for larger image


Table 6
Support needs to reduce sodium use in restaurants
Click for larger image

References
1. He FJ, Li J, Macgregor GA. Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2013;346:f1325
2. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2012;125(1):e2–e220.
3. World Health Organization. WHO guideline: sodium intake for adults and children [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 [cited 2019 Mar 15].
4. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2017: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-2). Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2018.
5. Mattes RD, Donnelly D. Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources. J Am Coll Nutr 1991;10(4):383–393.
6. Kwon YS, Park YH, Choe JS, Yang YK. Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998–2009). Nutr Res Pract 2014;8(1):81–93.
7. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Only 8% of respondents knows recommended intake of sodium [Internet]. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2010 [cited 2019 Feb 28].
8. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Reducing salt in eating-out [Internet]. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; [cited 2019 Feb 28].
9. Kwon YS, Ju SY. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8(6):670–678.
10. Jung J. Policy trends of sodium reduction. Food Sci Ind 2016;49(2):2–7.
11. Shin EK, Lee YK. Comparison of sodium content of workplace and homemade meals through chemical analysis and salinity measurements. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8(5):558–563.
12. Jang MR, Hong MS, Choi BC, Han SH, Lee KA, Kim LL, et al. Contents of sodium and potassium for restaurant dishes in Seoul. J Food Hyg Saf 2015;30(2):189–195.
13. Lim HS, Ko YS, Shin D, Heo YR, Chung HJ, Char IS, et al. Sodium and potassium content of school meals for elementary and junior high school students in Daegu, Masan, Gwangju, and Jeju. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42(8):1303–1317.
14. Hong SM, Lee JH, Kim HK, Yu R, Seo JH, Huh EJ, et al. Study on sodium reduction: ‘healthy restaurant for sodium reduction’. J Korean Diet Assoc 2014;20(3):174–182.
15. Kwon SB, Kim HY. Sensory characteristics of step-by-step sodium reduction on frequently used high sodium foods in the institutional food service industry. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2015;31(4):465–476.
16. Shin HW, Lee YM. The effectiveness of Na reduction program for cook in child-care center-Focus on self-reevaluation and strengthen consciousness-. Korean J Community Nutr 2014;19(5):425–435.
17. Kim EK, Kim HY. School dietitian awareness, practice, and sodium reduction plan in school meal service. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2016;32(2):222–232.
18. Lee KS. Use of salimeters and sodium reduction education in school foodservice in the Gyeonggi area. J Korean Diet Assoc 2013;19(2):173–181.
19. Ahn SH, Kwon JS, Kim K, Yoon JS, Kang BW, Kim JW, et al. Study on the eating habits and practicability of guidelines for reducing sodium intake according to the stage of change in housewives. Korean J Community Nutr 2012;17(6):724–736.
20. Jung EJ, Son SM, Kwon JS. The effect of sodium reduction education program of a public health center on the blood pressure, blood biochemical profile and sodium intake of hypertensive adults. Korean J Community Nutr 2012;17(6):752–771.
21. Ahn Y, Kim KW, Kim K, Pyun J, Yeo I, Nam K. Nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy of childcare center service employees by stages of behavioral change in reducing sodium intake. J Nutr Health 2015;48(5):429–440.
22. Song DY, Park JE, Shim JE, Lee JE. Trends in the major dish groups and food groups contributing to sodium intake in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2010. Korean J Nutr 2013;46(1):72–85.
23. Jiang L, Shin D, Lee YK. Salinity of representative Korean foods high in sodium from home meals, foodservices, and restaurants. Korean J Community Nutr 2018;23(4):333–340.
24. Ha IH, Lyu ES. Awareness, practice, and obstruction of sodium reduction by middle school dietitians in Busan area. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2015;31(2):225–232.
25. Park S, Lee J. ‘When operating a cafeteria, sales come before nutrition’ - finding barriers and facilitators to serving reduced-sodium meals in worksite cafeterias. Public Health Nutr 2016;19(8):1506–1516.
26. Ma GX, Shive S, Zhang Y, Aquilante J, Tan Y, Zhao M, et al. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to salt use among Philadelphia Chinese take-out restaurant owners and chefs. Health Promot Pract 2014;15(5):638–645.
27. Jacobson MF, Havas S, McCarter R. Changes in sodium levels in processed and restaurant foods, 2005 to 2011. JAMA Intern Med 2013;173(14):1285–1291.