Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(5) > 1136454

J Nutr Health. 2019 Oct;52(5):475-487. Korean.
Published online Oct 30, 2019.
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Current status, perception and practicability of restaurant staffs related to reducing sodium use in Seongnam, Korea
So-Hyun Ahn,1 Jong Sook Kwon,1 Kyungmin Kim,2 Yoonna Lee,1 and Hye-Kyeong Kim3
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Shingu College, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13174, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Baewha Women's University, Seoul 03039, Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi 14662, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-202164-4314, Email:
Received Jul 30, 2019; Revised Sep 23, 2019; Accepted Sep 24, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



With the increase of going out to eat, reducing the sodium in restaurant foods has a crucial impact on reducing sodium intake. This study aimed to assess the current status and perceptions of restaurant staffs related to reducing sodium use in restaurants.


Restaurant managers and chefs (n = 312) in Seongnam area completed a questionnaire on the current status related to sodium use, the barriers to practice for reducing sodium use, support needs, and the practicability of methods for reducing sodium use in restaurants.


The percentage of restaurants in the preaction stage (including the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages) for reducing sodium use was 79.7%. Logistic regression analysis showed that measuring salinity while cooking was associated with measuring seasoning (OR, 4.761; 95% CI, 2.325 ~ 9.751), action/maintenance stages of behavior change (OR, 2.829; 95% CI, 1.449 ~ 5.525) and providing salinity information of restaurant foods (OR, 6.314; 95% CI, 2.964 ~ 13.45). Maintaining taste and hindering the cooking process were the main barriers to reduce sodium use. The total practicability of actions for reducing sodium was higher in staffs who worked in restaurants that measured seasoning and salinity while cooking (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The hardest item to practice was ‘purchase foods after comparing sodium content in the nutrition labeling’. ‘Avoid serving salt-fermented foods as side dishes’, ‘serve small portions of kimchi and less salty kimchi’, and ‘put up promotional materials for reducing sodium intake’ were selected as easy items to perform. The majority (82%) was willing to reduce sodium in restaurant foods under the support of local government and they desired the promotion of participating restaurants and education on cooking skills to reduce sodium.


Measuring seasoning and salinity while cooking is a meaningful practice that is associated with stages of behavior change and the practicability of actions for reducing sodium. It is necessary to provide support and education with a gradual approach to staffs for reducing sodium in restaurant foods.

Keywords: sodium reduction; restaurants; salinity; perception; practice


Table 1
General characteristics of the participants
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Table 2
Recognition of social environment and current status related to reducing sodium intake
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Table 3
Logistic regression analysis of correlating variables with measuring salt or salinity
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Table 4
Positive outcome expectancies and barriers to reduce sodium use in restaurants
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Table 5
Practicability of actions for reducing sodium use in restaurants
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Table 6
Support needs to reduce sodium use in restaurants
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