Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(4) > 1136444

J Nutr Health. 2019 Aug;52(4):369-382. Korean.
Published online Aug 28, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.4.369
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Association with obesity and abdominal obesity according to the kind and amount of coffee intake in Korean adults: 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyoung-seop Park and Jung-Sug Lee
Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-910-6438, Email: leejs1945@kookmin.ac.kr
Received Jul 16, 2019; Revised Aug 01, 2019; Accepted Aug 05, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

We evaluate the influence of the types of coffee beverage on obesity and abdominal obesity in Korean adults who were aged 19 years or over by using the 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Methods

Specific questions were asked about frequency of coffee intake, the type of coffee beverage, the addition of milk and/or sugar to coffee by using the food frequency questionnaire of the 2013 ~ 2016 KNHANES.

Results

We found that coffee intake increased the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. After multivariable adjustment, coffee consumption increased the risk of obesity by 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08 ~ 1.57) in the group that drank coffee twice a day, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11 ~ 1.60) in the people who drank coffee ≥3 times a day as compared to that of the non-coffee intake group. The risk of abdominal obesity increased to 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02 ~ 1.57) in the < 1 time/day coffee drinking group, 1.34 (95% CI: 1.08 ~ 1.66) in the 1 time/day coffee drinking group, 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09 ~ 1.67) in the 2 times/day coffee drinking group, and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.14 ~ 1.72) in the ≥ 3 times/day coffee drinking group as compared to that of the non-coffee drinking group. The influence of black coffee intake was different according to gender: males showed a high prevalence of abdominal obesity and females showed a high prevalence of obesity. Mixed coffee consumption increased the risk of obesity and abdominal obesity by more than 34% in men who consumed coffee more than 3 times a day and in women who consumed coffee more than 2 times per day.

Conclusions

We found that coffee intake, regardless of the type of coffee, increased the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. It is necessary to refrain from drinking coffee to prevent obesity.

Keywords: coffee; black coffee; mix coffee; obesity; abdominal obesity

Figures


Fig. 1
The procedure of selecting the subjects
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristic according to daily coffee intake frequency
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Table 2
Logistic regression analysis among daily intake frequency of coffee, obesity and abdominal obesity
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Table 3
Logistic regression analysis among daily intake frequency of black coffee, obesity and abdominal obesity
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Table 4
Logistic regression analysis among daily intake frequency of mix coffee, obesity and abdominal obesity
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