Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(4) > 1136443

J Nutr Health. 2019 Aug;52(4):354-368. Korean.
Published online Aug 28, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.4.354
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Estimated glycemic load (eGL) of mixed meals and its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults: data from the 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Kyungho Ha,1 Kisun Nam,2 and YoonJu Song3
1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Health & Nutrition Research Center, Pulmuone Co., Ltd., Seoul 06367, Korea.
3Major of Food and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi 14662, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-2164-4681, Email: yjsong@catholic.ac.kr
Received Mar 20, 2019; Revised Jun 21, 2019; Accepted Jun 27, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluated the glycemic response of diets using estimated glycemic load (eGL), which had been developed for mixed meals for Korean adults, and examined its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults.

Methods

A total of 4,655 men and 6,760 women aged 19 years and above were included from the 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. eGL was calculated by each meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) and then summed to give daily total eGL. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association.

Results

Mean daily total eGL was 112.6 in men and 99.3 in women. Daily total eGL was positively associated with carbohydrate and fiber intakes, but negatively associated with protein and fat intakes in both men and women (p < 0.05 for all). Daily total eGL showed an inverse association with HDL-cholesterol level in both men and women (p = 0.0036 for men and p = 0.0008 for women). Men in the highest quintile of daily total eGL showed a 66% increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10 ~ 2.50; p for trend = 0.0447) compared with those in the lowest quintile.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that eGL based on carbohydrate, protein, fat and fiber intakes can reflect glycemic response and therefore can be used as an index for dietary planning, nutrition education and in the food industry.

Keywords: glycemic load; mixed meal; carbohydrate; dyslipidemia; Koreans

Figures


Fig. 1
Distribution of estimated glycemic load among Korean adults by sex (A) and age groups (B) using the data from 2013 ~ 2016 KNHANES. The complex sampling design parameters of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used.
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Fig. 2
Food group consumption of study participants according to quintile of energy-adjusted daily total estimated glycemic load (eGL) by sex. Q: quintile of energy-adjusted daily total eGL. %Servings = the number of servings consumed/the recommended number of servings based on the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans×100. MFEB: meat, fish, eggs, and beans. The complex sampling design parameters of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used from a general linear model after adjusted for age, body mass index, education, household income, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake. * p for trend < 0.05, ** p for trend < 0.0001
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Tables


Table 1
The mean daily total estimated glycemic load (eGL) and eGL at each meal by sex and age groups1), 2)
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Table 2
Partial spearman correlation coefficients between estimated glycemic load (eGL) and macronutrient intakes by sex1)
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Table 3
General characteristics of study participants according to quintile of energy-adjusted daily total estimated glycemic load (eGL) by sex1)
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Table 4
Mean estimated glycemic load (eGL) of mixed meal and macronutrient intake of study participants according to quintile of energy-adjusted daily total eGL by sex1), 2)
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Table 5
Anthropometric and biochemical variables of study participants according to quintile of energy-adjusted daily total estimated glycemic load (eGL) by sex1), 2), 3)
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Table 6
Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of metabolic diseases according to quintile of energy-adjusted daily total estimated glycemic load (eGL) by sex1), 2)
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Notes

This work was supported by the research grant funded from the Pulmuone Co., Ltd.

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