Journal List > J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs > v.30(3) > 1134751

Kim, Choi, and Kim: Effects of Hand Moxibustion and Hand Press Pellet on Low Back Pain, Range of Joint Movement, and Depression



This study tries to examine the effects of hand moxibustion and press pellet by applying them to male manufacturing workers with low back pain, and use them to develop nursing interventions for workers.


The data were collected from August to October, 2018, and the subjects were 60 men, processed by using SPSS/WIN 21.0 to perform homogeneity test with x2-, t-, and hypothesis tests with repeated measures, ANOVA and Scheffé test.


Hypothesis 1 that “the experimental group provided with hand moxibustion and hand press pellet would give lower scores for low back pain than the control group” was supported (F=78.71, p<.001). Hypothesis 2 that “the experimental group provided with hand moxibustion and hand press pellet would have a wider range of motion than the control group” was also supported (F=17.44, p<.001). Hypothesis 3 that “the experimental group provided with hand moxibustion and hand press pellet would give lower scores for depression than the control group,” again, was supported (F=16.95, p<.001).


Hand moxibustion and hand press pellet are effective in relieving low back pain for male workers, in increasing the range of motion, and in decreasing depression.


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Figure 1.
Research flow diagram.
Figure 2.
Corresponding points on hands for low back pain.
Table 1.
Homogeneity Test for General Characteristics and Dependent Variables (N=60)
Characteristics Categories Exp. (n=30)
Cont. (n=30)
x2 or t (p)
n (%) n (%)
Age (year) <30 1 (3.3) 3 (10.0) 6.35 (.096)
30~39 10 (33.3) 16 (53.3)
40~49 4 (13.3) 5 (16.7)
≥50 15 (50.0) 6 (20.0)
Employment period (year) ≤9 11 (36.7) 15 (50.0) 6.41 (.051)
10~19 3 (10.0) 8 (26.7)
≥20 16 (53.3) 7 (23.3)
Working hours per day <8 4 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 4.29 (.112)
≥9 26 (86.7) 30 (100.0)
BMI (kg/m²) Normal weight 14 (46.7) 11 (36.7) 4.12 (.249)
Overweight 11 (36.7) 10 (33.3)
Obesity 1 (3.3) 6 (20.0)
Altitude obesity 4 (13.3) 3 (10.0)
Working posture Stand 26 (86.7) 25 (83.3) 0.13 (>.999)
Sit down 4 (13.3) 5 (16.7)
Workbench height Inadequate 17 (56.7) 13 (43.3) 1.07 (.302)
Proper 13 (43.3) 17 (56.7)
At the start of low back pain <6 3 (10.0) 2 (6.7) 0.22 (>.999)
(month) ≥6 27 (90.0) 28 (93.3)
Marriage Single 2 (6.7) 5 (16.7) 1.46 (.424)
Married 28 (93.3) 25 (83.3)
Low back pain 6.00 5.10 1.26 (.158)
Range of motion (°) 62.68 59.83 0.91 (.366)
Depression 35.17 25.50 1.66 (.095)

Exp.=experiment group; Cont.=control group; BMI=Body Mass Index.

Table 2.
Difference in Low Back Pain, Range of Motion, Depression between Experimental Group and Control Group over Time
Variables Groups Beforehanda
After 2 weeksb
After 4 weeksc
Factor F (p) Scheffé
Low back pain Exp. (n=30) 6.00±1.15 5.03±1.33 3.63±1.10 Group 0.52 (.476) a>b
Cont. (n=30) 5.10±1.21 5.03±1.10 5.13±1.04 Time 78.71 (<.001) a>c
Total 5.55±1.25 5.03±1.21 4.38±1.30 Time * Group 84.63 (<.001) b>c
Range of motion Exp. (n=30) 62.67±13.05 64.83±13.29 73.33±8.74 Group 7.15 (.010) c>a
Cont. (n=30) 59.83±10.95 60.00±11.30 59.17±9.48 Time 17.44 (<.001) c>b
Total 61.25±12.03 62.42±12.50 66.25±11.52 Time * Group 23.31 (<.001) -
Depression Exp. (n=30) 35.17±15.74 32.50±15.96 26.00±13.17 Group 2.15 (.148) a>c
Cont. (n=30) 25.50±9.74 26.63±9.77 27.53±9.74 Time 16.95 (<.001) -
Total 30.33±13.86 29.57±13.45 26.77±11.51 Time * Group 38.99 (<.001)

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

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