Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(3) > 1128184

J Nutr Health. 2019 Jun;52(3):250-257. Korean.
Published online Jun 24, 2019.
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Anti-oxidant and anti-adipocyte differentiation of Aster glehni and Aster yomena
Ji Yeon Lee,1,2 Jeong-Yong Park,1,2 Hyung Don Kim,1 Seung Eun Lee,1 Jeong Hoon Lee,1 Yunji Lee,1 and Kyung Hye Seo1
1Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Eumsung, Chungbuk 27709, Korea.
2Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82 438715785, Email:
Received Mar 20, 2019; Revised Apr 02, 2019; Accepted May 08, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Aster glehnii (AG) and Aster yomena (AY) are medicinal plants that belong to the family Compositea and grow widely in Korea. Plants in the genus Aster have been used to treat snakebite wounds or bruises in oriental medicine. This study compared the effects of anti-oxidants and anti-adipocyte differentiation according to the species (the aerial parts of AG and AY).


AG and AY were extracted using 70% ethanol (−E) and water (−W) at room temperature. The anti-oxidant activities were measured by total phenol contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH and ABTS+ assay. In addition, correlation analysis was performed for the anti-oxidant compounds and effect. The level of anti-adipocyte differentiation was assessed using an oil red O assay on pre-adipocytes.


AG-W showed higher TPC (6.92 µg/mL) and AG-E presented higher TFC (8.22 µg/mL) than the other extracts. Furthermore, AG-E exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the DPPH and ABTS+ assay (IC50: 104.88 and 30.06 µg/mL). In the cytotoxicity assay, AG and AY extracts at concentrations less than 100µg/mL were non toxic. AG-W reduced the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells significantly after differentiation (70.49%) compared to the other extracts.


These results show that the water extract of AG has anti-oxidant effects and reduces the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, AG has utility as a functional food material for its anti-oxidant activities and ability to prevent lipid accumulation.

Keywords: anti-obesity; radical scavenging activity; Aster glehui; adipocyte


Fig. 1
Schematic presentation of adipocyte differentiation process. The media changed every two days until cell differentiation. The number of days was indicated based on the induction of differentiation. BCS, bovine calf serum; P/S/G, penicillin-streptomycin-glutamine; FBS, fetal bovine serum; IBMX, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; samples, 100 µg/mL of AY (−E,−W) and AG (−E,−W) extracts
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Fig. 2
Cell viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with AG and AY (−E, −W) at various concentrations (25 ~ 200 µg/mL) for 24 hr. Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay. Results are means ± SD of three independent experiments. Significance was determined using ANOVA; **p < 0.01 vs. control
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Fig. 3
Microscopy of lipid droplets and quantification of lipid accumulation based on Oil Red O staining for measured as described in material and methods. (A) The effect of AG (−E, −W) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (B) The effect of AY (−E, −W) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. All extracts concentration was 100 µg/mL. CLA (conjugated linoleic acid, 50 µM) was used for positive control. All values are expressed as mean ± SD of data from 3 dependent experiments with 3 replicates. Significance was determined using ANOVA; ###p < 0.001 vs. non-treated control, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. MDI treated control
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Table 1
Total phenol and flavonoid compound contents and yields of AG and AY with different solvents
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Table 2
Antioxidant activities (ABTS+ and DPPH) of AG and AY with different solvents
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Table 3
Correlation between factors affecting of TPC, TFC and antioxidant effects
Click for larger image


This study was performed with the support of the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (project no. PJ01361603), the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

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