Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(3) > 1128183

Park, Lee, Jeong, Lee, and Lee: Mitigation effects of red Platycodon grandiflorum extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in splenocytes isolated from mice



Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) is known to have effective antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The main bioactive components of PG are saponins, and these could contribute to anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of PG. In this study, we aim to assess the anti-inflammatory response to Red PG Extract (RPGE) in splenocytes under ex vivo conditions.


The cell viability of isolated splenocytes taken from mice was analyzed by performing a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The productions of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were measured utilizing Griess reagent and ELISA, respectively.


We found that co-treatment with RPGE and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased isolated splenocyte proliferation as compared with that of the LPS-stimulated control. We also observed that RPGE markedly suppressed NO synthesis and IL-6 production that was induced by LPS. There were no significant differences of IL-10 production between co-treatment with RPGE plus LPS and treatment with LPS alone.


When taken together, our data has shown that RPGE mitigates LPS-induced inflammation in splenocytes isolated from mice. Further research is surely needed to confirm the anti-inflammation effects of RPGE in an in vivo model.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Chromatograms of active ingredients in Red Platycodon grandiflorum Extract (RPGE)

Fig. 2

RPGE reduces LPS-induced cell proliferation in splenocytes. The cells were treated with various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours in the absence (A) or presence (B) LPS (1 µg/mL). Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).

Fig. 3

RPGE inhibits LPS-induced NO synthesis in splenocytes. The cells were treated with LPS (1 µg/mL) and the various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours. The culture media was collected to measure NO synthesis using Griess reagent. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; NO, Nitric oxide; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).

Fig. 4

RPGE modulates LPS-induced cytokine levels in splenocytes. The cells were treated with LPS (1 µg/mL) and the various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours. The culture media was collected to assess cytokine levels for (A) IL-6 and (B) IL-10. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; IL, interleukin; ND, not detected; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p <0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).

Table 1

Gradient mobile phase conditions



This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01381002)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.


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Eun-Jung Park

You-Suk Lee

Hyun Cheol Jeong

Sung-Hyen Lee

Hae-Jeung Lee

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