Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(3) > 1128183

J Nutr Health. 2019 Jun;52(3):243-249. Korean.
Published online Jun 24, 2019.
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Mitigation effects of red Platycodon grandiflorum extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in splenocytes isolated from mice
Eun-Jung Park,1 You-Suk Lee,1 Hyun Cheol Jeong,2 Sung-Hyen Lee,3 and Hae-Jeung Lee1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea.
2Food R&D Center, SK Bioland Co., Ltd, Ansan, Gyeonggi 15407, Korea.
3National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Department Administration, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55365, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-31-750-5968, Email:
Received May 13, 2019; Revised Jun 03, 2019; Accepted Jun 03, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) is known to have effective antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The main bioactive components of PG are saponins, and these could contribute to anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of PG. In this study, we aim to assess the anti-inflammatory response to Red PG Extract (RPGE) in splenocytes under ex vivo conditions.


The cell viability of isolated splenocytes taken from mice was analyzed by performing a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The productions of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were measured utilizing Griess reagent and ELISA, respectively.


We found that co-treatment with RPGE and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased isolated splenocyte proliferation as compared with that of the LPS-stimulated control. We also observed that RPGE markedly suppressed NO synthesis and IL-6 production that was induced by LPS. There were no significant differences of IL-10 production between co-treatment with RPGE plus LPS and treatment with LPS alone.


When taken together, our data has shown that RPGE mitigates LPS-induced inflammation in splenocytes isolated from mice. Further research is surely needed to confirm the anti-inflammation effects of RPGE in an in vivo model.

Keywords: Platycodon grandiflorum; anti-inflammatory; splenocytes


Fig. 1
Chromatograms of active ingredients in Red Platycodon grandiflorum Extract (RPGE)
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Fig. 2
RPGE reduces LPS-induced cell proliferation in splenocytes. The cells were treated with various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours in the absence (A) or presence (B) LPS (1 µg/mL). Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).
Click for larger image

Fig. 3
RPGE inhibits LPS-induced NO synthesis in splenocytes. The cells were treated with LPS (1 µg/mL) and the various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours. The culture media was collected to measure NO synthesis using Griess reagent. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; NO, Nitric oxide; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).
Click for larger image

Fig. 4
RPGE modulates LPS-induced cytokine levels in splenocytes. The cells were treated with LPS (1 µg/mL) and the various concentrations of RPGE for 24 hours. The culture media was collected to assess cytokine levels for (A) IL-6 and (B) IL-10. LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; IL, interleukin; ND, not detected; VC, vehicle control. The data represents the mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01, *** p <0.005 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test).
Click for larger image


Table 1
Gradient mobile phase conditions
Click for larger image


This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01381002)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

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