Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(2) > 1122034

J Nutr Health. 2019 Apr;52(2):227-241. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.2.227
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Study on relationship between caffeine intake level and metabolic syndrome and related diseases in Korean adults: 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jung-Sug Lee, Hyoung-Seop Park, Sanghoon Han, Gegen Tana and Moon-Jeong Chang
Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-910-4776, Email: cmoon@kookmin.ac.kr
Received Feb 26, 2019; Revised Mar 15, 2019; Accepted Mar 22, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the relationship between caffeine intake and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (KNHANES).

Methods

The caffeine database (DB) developed by Food and Drug Safety Assessment Agency in 2014 was used to estimate the caffeine consumption. The food and beverage consumption of the 24 hr recall data of 2013 ~ 2016 KNHANES were matched to items in the caffeine DB and the daily caffeine intakes of the individuals were calculated. The sample was limited to non-pregnant healthy adults aged 19 years and older, who were not taking any medication for disease treatment.

Results

The average daily caffeine intake was 41.97 mg, and the daily intake of caffeine of 97% of the participants was from coffee, teas, soft drinks, and other beverages. Multivariate analysis showed that the caffeine intake did not affect metabolic syndrome, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia, however, were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63 ~ 0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77 ~ 0.98) in third quintile (Q3), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53 ~ 0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 ~ 0.94) in fourth quintile (Q4) compared to Q1, respectively. Therefore, caffeine intake of 3.66 ~ 45.81 mg per day is related to a lower risk of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia.

Conclusion

The study showed that adequate caffeine intake (approximately 45 mg) was associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Therefore, it can be used as a guideline for the adequate level of caffeine intake for maintaining health.

Keywords: caffeine; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertriglyceridemia; KNHANES

Figures


Fig. 1
The prodecure of selecting the subjects
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of subjects by caffeine groups
Click for larger image


Table 2
Food and caffeine intake by caffeine source food groups by caffeine groups
Click for larger image


Table 3
Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood glucose and lipid profile by caffeine groups
Click for larger image


Table 4
Logistic regression analysis between daily caffeine intake and metabolic syndrome
Click for larger image

References
1. Dorfman LJ, Jarvik ME. Comparative stimulant and diuretic actions of caffeine and theobromine in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1970;11(6):869–872.
2. Harland BF. Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition 2000;16(7-8):522–526.
3. Kim M. In: Assessment of caffeine intake from foods. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2014.
4. Reyes CM, Cornelis MC. Caffeine in the diet: country-level consumption and guidelines. Nutrients 2018;10(11):pii: E1772.
5. Lovallo WR, Wilson MF, Vincent AS, Sung BH, McKey BS, Whitsett TL. Blood pressure response to caffeine shows incomplete tolerance after short-term regular consumption. Hypertension 2004;43(4):760–765.
6. Yoon MH, Lee MJ, Hwang SI, Moon SK, Kim JK, Jeong IH, et al. A evaluation of the caffeine contents in commercial foods. J Food Hyg Saf 2001;16(4):295–299.
7. Lim HS, Hwang JY, Choi JC, Kim M. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2015;32(11):1786–1798.
8. Frary CD, Johnson RK, Wang MQ. Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105(1):110–113.
9. Martyn D, Lau A, Richardson P, Roberts A. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States. Food Chem Toxicol 2018;111:71–83.
10. Temple JL, Bernard C, Lipshultz SE, Czachor JD, Westphal JA, Mestre MA. The safety of ingested caffeine: a comprehensive review. Front Psychiatry 2017;8:80–99.
11. Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ 2017;359:j5024.
12. Grosso G, Marventano S, Galvano F, Pajak A, Mistretta A. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population: role of caffeinated beverages. J Epidemiol 2014;24(4):327–333.
13. Grosso G, Stepaniak U, Micek A, Topor-Mądry R, Pikhart H, Szafraniec K, et al. Association of daily coffee and tea consumption and metabolic syndrome: results from the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study. Eur J Nutr 2015;54(7):1129–1137.
14. Takami H, Nakamoto M, Uemura H, Katsuura S, Yamaguchi M, Hiyoshi M, et al. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan. J Epidemiol 2013;23(1):12–20.
15. Shin H, Linton JA, Kwon Y, Jung Y, Oh B, Oh S. Relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: data from the 2013-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Fam Med 2017;38(6):346–351.
16. Yeon JY, Bae YJ. 3-in-1 coffee consumption is associated with metabolic factors in adults: based on 2012~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Nutr Health 2017;50(3):257–269.
17. Lee J, Lee JE, Kim Y. Relationship between coffee consumption and stroke risk in Korean population: the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study. Nutr J 2017;16(1):7.
18. Lee J, Kim HY, Kim J. Coffee consumption and the risk of obesity in Korean women. Nutrients 2017;9(12):E1340.
19. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2015: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-3). Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016.
20. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2016: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-1). Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2017.
21. National Institutes of Health. ATP III guidelines At-A-Glance quick desk reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2001 [cited 2018 Mar 3].
22. Kim M. In: Investigation of naturally occurring caffeine in plant materials. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2014.
23. Kwon S, Lee JS. Study on relationship between milk intake and prevalence rates of chronic diseases in adults based on 5th and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Nutr Health 2017;50(2):158–170.
24. Rudolph E, Färbinger A, König J. Determination of the caffeine contents of various food items within the Austrian market and validation of a caffeine assessment tool (CAT). Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2012;29(12):1849–1860.
25. Yamada M, Sasaki S, Murakami K, Takahashi Y, Okubo H, Hirota N, et al. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations. Public Health Nutr 2010;13(5):663–672.
26. Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Lieberman HR. Trends in intake and sources of caffeine in the diets of US adults: 2001–2010. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;101(5):1081–1087.
27. Kim S. Coffee consumption behaviors, dietary habits, and dietary nutrient intakes according to coffee intake amount among university student. J Nutr Health 2017;50(3):270–283.
28. Lee H, Kwon S, Yon M, Kim D, Lee J, Nam J, et al. Dietary total sugar intake of Koreans: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011. J Nutr Health 2014;47(4):268–276.
29. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23(5):921–928.
30. Kim N, Choi K. Lipid metabolic effects of caffeine using meta-analysis. J Korean Data Inf Sci Soc 2012;23(4):649–656.
31. Cai L, Ma D, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang P. The effect of coffee consumption on serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66(8):872–877.
32. Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Liu XX, Hui R, Huang XH. Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(2):601–610.
33. Kim K, Kim K, Park SM. Association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the level of coffee consumption among Korean women. PLoS One 2016;11(12):e0167007
34. Kim Y, Je Y. Moderate coffee consumption is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome in the Korean adult population. Br J Nutr 2018;120(11):1279–1287.
35. Appelhans BM, Baylin A, Huang MH, Li H, Janssen I, Kazlauskaite R, et al. Beverage intake and metabolic syndrome risk over 14 years: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Acad Nutr Diet 2017;117(4):554–562.
36. Kim HJ, Cho S, Jacobs DR Jr, Park K. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014;106(1):145–153.
37. Chiva-Blanch G, Badimon L. Effects of polyphenol intake on metabolic syndrome: current evidences from human trials. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:5812401