Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(2) > 1122033

J Nutr Health. 2019 Apr;52(2):217-226. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2019.
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Evaluation of dietary habits according to breakfast consumption in Korean adolescents: based on the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013 ~ 2015
Hyun-Suk Kim,1,2 Ui-Suk Lee,1,2 Seon-Hyeong Kim,1,2 and Youn-Soo Cha2,3
1Department of Nutrition, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54907, Korea.
2Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54895, Korea.
3Department of Obesity Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54895, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-63-270-3822, Email:
Received Feb 08, 2019; Revised Mar 06, 2019; Accepted Mar 14, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study examined the nutrient intake and dietary habits based on breakfast consumption in Korean adolescents.


The data of the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used in this study. The analysis included 1,281 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into two groups (EBF: eating breakfast, n = 911; SBF: skipping breakfast, n = 370).


The EBF group was significantly younger than the SBF group. In addition, the EBF group had a significantly lower frequency of skipping dinner than the SBF group. The EBF group consumed significantly higher levels of most nutrients except for vitamin A than the SBF group. The percent of nutrient intake under the EAR (estimated average requirements) in the EBF group were also significantly lower than that in the SBF group. Moreover, the NAR (nutrient adequacy ratio) and MAR (mean adequacy ratio) of the EBF group were significantly higher than those of the SBP group. The intake of cereal, sugars and sweeteners, vegetables, and eggs in the EBF group was significantly higher than that in the SBF group.


The habit of skipping breakfast in adolescents leads to a decrease in the total nutrient intake and imbalanced dietary habits. Breakfast consumption in adolescence is very important. Therefore, more studies will be needed to develop nutrition education systematically in Korean adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents; eating breakfast; nutrient intake; food intake; dietary habit


Table 1
General characteristics of the subjects
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Table 2
Dietary habits of the subjects
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Table 3
Daily food intakes from each food group of the subjects
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Table 4
Daily nutrient intakes of the subjects
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Table 5
The percent of the subjects consumed under EAR1) of the subjects
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Table 6
NAR1) and MAR2) of the subjects
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Table 7
INQ1) of the subjects
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This work was carried out with the support of ‘Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No.PJ0133722019)’ Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

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