Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(2) > 1122032

J Nutr Health. 2019 Apr;52(2):206-216. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.2.206
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Trends in metabolic risk factors among patients with diabetes mellitus according to income levels: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1998 ~ 2014
Sukyung Cho and Kyong Park
Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-053-810-2879, Email: kypark@ynu.ac.kr
Received Nov 13, 2018; Revised Dec 23, 2018; Accepted Jan 22, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

Management of the metabolic risk factors in diabetes patients is essential for preventing or delaying diabetic complications. This study compared the levels of the metabolic risk factors in diabetes patients according to the income levels, and examined the secular trends in recent decades.

Methods

The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 ~ 2014 were used. The diabetes patients were divided into three groups based on their household income levels. General information was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and the blood biomarkers and blood pressure data were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable linear regression models were used to compare the metabolic biomarker levels according to the household income levels, adjusting for potential confounding factors.

Results

The fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and blood lipid (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride) levels were similar in the three groups. During the survey period of 16 years, the blood pressure showed a significant decreasing trend with time in all groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, the fasting blood glucose (p = 0.004), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), and LDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.007) decreased significantly, and the HDL-cholesterol level (p < 0.001) increased significantly in the highest-income groups. In the lowest-income group, the fasting blood glucose (p = 0.02), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), and triglyceride (p = 0.003) levels showed a significant decreasing trend over time. On the other hand, the middle-income group showed no significant change in any of the metabolic risk factors except for blood pressure.

Conclusion

The level of management of metabolic risk factors according to the income level of Korean diabetes patients was similar. On the other hand, the highest- and lowest-income groups showed positive trends of management of these factors during 16 years of observation, whereas the middle-income group did not show any improvement.

Keywords: diabetes; patients; income; metabolic risk factors; Korean

Tables


Table 1
Characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus according to the household income levels
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Table 2
Nutrient intakes as a percentage of dietary reference intakes among patients with diabetes mellitus according to the household income levels
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Table 3
Fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels among patients with diabetes mellitus according to the household income levels
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Table 4
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels among patients with diabetes mellitus according to the household income levels
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Table 5
Lipid profiles of patients with diabetes mellitus according to the household income levels
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Notes

This work was supported by the 2018 Yeungnam University research grant.

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