Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(2) > 1122031

J Nutr Health. 2019 Apr;52(2):194-205. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2019.
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Assessment of dietary behaviors among preschoolers in Daejeon: using Nutrition Quotient for Preschoolers (NQ-P)
Hye-Jin Lee,1 Jin Hee Kim,1,2 and SuJin Song2
1Daedeokgu Center for Children's Foodservice Management, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34054, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-629-8791, Email:
Received Jan 21, 2019; Revised Mar 19, 2019; Accepted Mar 25, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary behaviors of preschoolers in Daejeon using the Nutrition Quotient for Preschoolers (NQ-P).


The study subjects were recruited from child-care centers and kindergartens located in Daedeok-gu, Daejeon between August and September 2018. A total of 411 preschoolers aged 3 ~ 6 years were included in the data analyses. A questionnaire of NQ-P, which consisted of 14 checklist items on dietary behaviors, was completed by the parents or guardians of the study subjects. The NQ-P scores and its three factors, including “balance”, “moderation”, and “environment” factors, were calculated according to sex, age, and weight status. Differences in the NQ-P scores and their factors according to sex, age, and weight status were tested using a student's t-test.


The mean NQ-P score of the total subjects was 58.5 ± 9.2, which was within the medium-low grade. The NQ-P score was 58.5 ± 9.4 in boys and 58.6 ± 9.0 in girls (p = 0.955). The NQ-P score was similar regardless of the age groups (57.8 ± 9.4 in 3 ~ 4 years vs. 59.2 ± 9.0 in 5 ~ 6 years, p = 0.124), whereas subjects aged 5 ~ 6 years showed a significantly higher scores of environment factors than those aged 3 ~ 4 years (67.9 ± 16.8 vs. 61.7 ± 17.3). The mean score of the moderation factor was lower in the overweight/obese children compared to the non-overweight/obese children (46.6 ± 13.3 vs. 51.0 ± 16.2, p = 0.012). Compared to children aged 3 ~ 4 years, children aged 5 ~ 6 years had higher intakes of vegetable dishes and processed meat. The overweight/obese group showed a higher consumption of processed beverages than the non-overweight/obese group.


The current study indicates that the dietary behaviors of preschoolers residing in Daejeon need to be improved. These findings suggest that nutrition education or health interventions targeting young children is necessary for improving their nutritional health status.

Keywords: nutrition quotient; eating behaviors; dietary habits; preschool children; Korean


Table 1
Characteristics of the study subjects
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Table 2
Scores of Nutrition Quotient for Preschoolers (NQ-P) and its factors by sex, age, and weight status
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Table 3
Checklist items for the balance factor by sex, age, and weight status
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Table 4
Checklist items for the moderation factor by sex, age, and weight status
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Table 5
Checklist items for the environment factor by sex, age, and weight status
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Table 6
Nutrition Quotient for Preschoolers (NQ-P) grade by sex, age, and weight status
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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT; Ministry of Science and ICT) (Grant No. NRF-2017R1C1B5017637) and 2018 Hannam University Research fund.

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