Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(2) > 1122030

J Nutr Health. 2019 Apr;52(2):185-193. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.2.185
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of standards for reducing the sodium content and salinity of Korean fermented soybean sauces and representative Korean foods high in sodium
Lin Jiang,1 Eun-Kyung Shin,1 Jung-Sook Seo,2 and Yeon-Kyung Lee1
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-53-950-6234, Email: yklee@knu.ac.kr
Received Sep 18, 2018; Revised Nov 20, 2018; Accepted Feb 20, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to develop standards for the salinity and sodium content in representative Korean foods high in sodium.

Methods

A total of 600 foods from four seasonings (soy sauce, soybean paste, red pepper paste, and ssamjang) and 16 representative Korean foods high in sodium were collected from 10 households, 10 industry foodservice establishments, and 10 Korean restaurants in 10 cities nationwide and analyzed for their salinity and sodium content. Based on the findings, the standards with a 20% ~ 30% reduced sodium content and salinity from the current level were presented.

Results

The suggested standards of salinity (and sodium content per 100 g) were less than 12% (4,500 mg) for soy sauce, 9% (3,500 mg) for soybean paste, 5% (2,000 mg) for red pepper paste, and 6% (2,500 mg) for ssamjang. The reduced standards of salinity for soups were suggested to less than 0.5% for clear soup and 0.7% for soybean paste soup, while for broths, it was 0.6% for clear broth and 0.7% for other broths. The standards of salinity for stews were suggested to less than 0.8% for soybean paste stew, 0.6% for other stews, 0.9% for steamed and stir-fried fish dishes, 1.0% for braised dishes, 4.0% for stir-fried dried fishes, 1.3% for other braised dishes including vegetables, and 1.5% for pickled vegetables and kimchi.

Conclusion

Standards for the sodium content and salinity were suggested to reduce the sodium level in fermented soybean sauces and representative Korean high sodium dishes by 20% from the current levels. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to adjust the standards properly to reduce the sodium content and salinity further by considering the future status of sodium intake.

Keywords: Korean food; fermented soybean sauces; sodium reduction; sodium content; salinity

Tables


Table 1
Sodium content of soy sauce, soybean paste, gochujang, and ssamjang by eating place (mg/100 g)
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Table 2
Sodium content of the representative Korean food high in sodium
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Table 3
Salinity of the representative Korean food high in sodium
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Table 4
Standard of sodium reduction and salinity reduction of soy sauce, soybean paste, gochujang, and ssamjang
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Table 5
Standard of sodium reduction and salinity reduction of the representative Korean food groups high in sodium
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Table 6
Sodium content of menu plan by 20% sodium reduction of the representative Korean food high in sodium
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Notes

This work was supported by grants from Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (913001-1).

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