Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(1) > 1117311

J Nutr Health. 2019 Feb;52(1):104-117. Korean.
Published online Feb 28, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.104
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old by food security status: analysis of data from the 6th (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ajung Bae,1 Jihyun Yoon,1,2 Soh-Yoon Yun,1 and Kana Asano1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-5706, Email: kanaasano@snu.ac.kr
Received Jul 06, 2018; Revised Aug 17, 2018; Accepted Jan 02, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study examined dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old by food security status.

Methods

The study used data from the 6th (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects consisted of 3,948 subjects, of whom 2,445 were the young-old (aged 65 to 74 years) and 1,503 were the old-old (aged 75 years and over). Food security status was evaluated using an 18-item questionnaire. Energy intake, nutrient densities, and prevalence of insufficient nutrient intake were assessed. Food intake was evaluated in terms of the number of food group servings. Dietary behaviors and health status were also assessed.

Results

The prevalence of food insecurity among the young-old and the old-old was 10.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Among the young-old, the food insecure group had a significantly higher level of prevalence of insufficient intake for all the nutrients (protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous, and iron) assessed in this study compared with the food secure group. In case of the old-old, significant differences were found only for four nutrients (protein, riboflavin, niacin, and phosphorus) in the prevalence of insufficient nutrient intake between the food secure and the food insecure groups. Kinds of food groups with significantly different numbers of servings by food security status were dissimilar between the two age groups. In both the age groups, the food insecure group consumed a significantly lower number of servings in meat·fish·eggs·legumes and fruits than the food secure group; grains and vegetables intake in the young-old and oils·sweets intake in the old-old differed in the number of servings by food security status. Among the young-old, the prevalence of chewing difficulties in the food insecure group was significantly higher than that of the food secure group, while among the old-old, no significant differences were found by food security status.

Conclusion

Dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old differed by food security status. Such differences were more apparent in the young-old than the old-old. Therefore, it is suggested that food and nutrition assistant programs should be designed with consideration of the differences.

Keywords: food supply; aged; diet; nutrition surveys

Figures


Fig. 1
Prevalence of the young-old and the old-old with insufficient nutrient intake by food security status in Korea. The data were analyzed using the complex sample module. Deficient intake refers to intake less than the Estimated Energy Requirement (EAR). **Significantly different between food security and food insecurity groups at α=0.01 by χ2-test. ***Significantly different between food security and food insecurity groups at α=0.001 by χ2-test
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Tables


Table 1
Prevalence of food insecurity among the young-old and the old-old in Korea
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Table 2
General characteristics of the subjects by food security status
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Table 3
Energy intake and nutrient densities of the young-old and the old-old by food security status in Korea
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Table 4
Number of food group servings that young-old and the old-old consumed by food security status in Korea
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Table 5
Dietary behaviors of the young-old and the old-old by food security status in Korea
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Table 6
Health status of the young-old and the old-old by food security status in Korea
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