Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.52(1) > 1117290

J Nutr Health. 2019 Feb;52(1):73-89. Korean.
Published online Feb 28, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.73
© 2019 The Korean Nutrition Society
Nutritional status and related parental factors according to the breakfast frequency of elementary school students: based on the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
So Young Yu,1 and Yoon Jung Yang2
1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Public Health, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Natural Science, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-940-4465, Email: yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr
Received Jan 07, 2019; Revised Jan 29, 2019; Accepted Feb 09, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to identify the dietary life and nutritional status of Korean elementary school students according to breakfast frequency and to clarify the relationship between breakfast frequency of elementary school students and parental dietary and social environmental factors.

Methods

This study used data from the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI). The subjects were 1,325 elementary school students aged 6 to 11 years old. Subjects were categorized into two groups: a skipping breakfast group (ate breakfast 0 ~ 4 times per week), eating breakfast group (ate breakfast 5 ~ 7 times per week) by sex and grade (lower grade: 1st ~ 3rd/upper grade: 4 th ~ 6 th).

Results

Among upper grade boys and girls, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of childhood obesity than the eating breakfast group. In lower grade boys, the mothers of the skipping breakfast group had higher rates of economic activity and eating breakfast alone without family members than the mothers of the eating breakfast group. For lower grade boys and girls and upper grade boys, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of parents who did not eat breakfast than the eating breakfast group. The energy intake of the breakfast consumed by all subjects was less than 25% of the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER). Moreover, for upper grade boys and girls, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of subjects whose daily intake was below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for iron than the eating breakfast group.

Conclusion

Breakfast frequency of elementary school students was related to childhood obesity. The frequency of eating breakfast among elementary school students was related to the dietary life factors of parents such as breakfast frequency and dietary condition. Intake for breakfast was less than 25% of the EER, while the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of subjects whose daily intake was below the EAR for iron than the eating breakfast group. Therefore, it is necessary to consider diverse forms of policy support such as opening nutrition education programs for parents and practicing morning meals at school for elementary school students to provide regular and balanced breakfasts.

Keywords: breakfast; nutritional status; elementary students; parental factors

Figures


Fig. 1
Percentages of energy intake by meal among the subjects according to breakfast frequency
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of the subjects according to breakfast frequency
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Table 2
Dietary habits of the subjects according to breakfast frequency
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Table 3
Sociodemographic factors of the mothers according to breakfast frequency of the subjects
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Table 4
Sociodemographic factors of the fathers according to breakfast frequency of the subjects
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Table 5
Eating habits of the mothers according to breakfast frequency of the subjects
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Table 6
Eating habits of the fathers according to breakfast frequency of the subjects
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Table 7
Daily nutrient intakes of the subjects according to breakfast frequency
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Table 8
Percentages of children whose daily intakes are below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) according to breakfast frequency
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Notes

This study was supported by the Dongduk Women's University Grant.

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