Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(6) > 1111488

J Nutr Health. 2018 Dec;51(6):567-579. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2018.51.6.567
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Mediation analysis of dietary habits, nutrient intakes, daily life in the relationship between working hours of Korean shift workers and metabolic syndrome : the sixth (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoona Kim,1 Hyeon Hee Kim,2 and Dong Hoon Lim2
1Department of Food and Nutrition/Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828, Korea.
2Department of Information & Statistics and RINS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-55-772-1465, Email: dhlim@gnu.ac.kr
Received Aug 13, 2018; Revised Oct 22, 2018; Accepted Nov 27, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the mediation effects of dietary habits, nutrient intake, daily life in the relationship between the working hours of Korean shift workers and metabolic syndrome.

Methods

Data were collected from the sixth (2013–2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The stochastic regression imputation was used to fill missing data. Statistical analysis was performed in Korean shift workers with metabolic syndrome using the SPSS 24 program for Windows and a structural equation model (SEM) using an analysis of moment structure (AMOS) 21.0 package.

Results

The model fitted the data well in terms of the goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.025, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.917, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.984, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.987, and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.915. Specific mediation effect of dietary habits (p = 0.023) was statistically significant in the impact of the working hours of shift workers on nutrient intake, and specific mediation effect of daily life (p = 0.019) was statistically significant in the impact of the working hours of shift workers on metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, the dietary habits, nutrient intake and daily life had no significant multiple mediator effects on the working hours of shift workers with metabolic syndrome.

Conclusion

The appropriate model suggests that working hours have direct effect on the daily life, which has the mediation effect on the risk of metabolic syndrome in shift workers.

Keywords: shift work; metabolic syndrome; dietary habits; structural equation model; mediation effect

Figures


Fig. 1
Research hypothesized model
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Fig. 2
Fitted model for multiple mediators. Errors are presented with e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6, e7, e8, e9, e10, e11, e12, e13, e14, e15, e16, e17, e18, e19, e20, e21, ee1, ee2, ee3 and ee4. b1: breakfast, b2: lunch b3: dinner, c1: food intake, c2: energy, c3: water, c15: phosphorus, c17: sodium, c18: potassium, c19: vitamin A, d1: waist circumference, d2: triglyceride, d3: fasting blood glucose, d4: blood pressure, d5: high density lipoprotein cholesterol, g1: daily life/movement ability, g2: self-management (e.g. bath, wearing clothes etc), g3: daily activity, g4: pain/discomfort. g5: anxiety/depression.
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Fig. 3
Fitted model for multiple mediators using phantom variables. Errors are presented with e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6, e7, e8, e9, e10, e11, e12, e13, e14, e15, e16, e17, e18, e19, e20, e21, ee1, ee2, ee3 and ee4. Pantom variables are presented with p1, p2, p3, p4, p5, p6, p7, p8, p9, p10, p11, p12 and p13. b1: breakfast, b2: lunch b3: dinner, c1: food intake, c2: energy, c3: water, c15: phosphorus, c17: sodium, c18: potassium, c19: vitamin A, d1: waist circumference, d2: triglyceride, d3: fasting blood glucose, d4: blood pressure, d5: high density lipoprotein cholesterol, g1: daily life/movement ability, g2: self-management (e.g. bath, wearing clothes etc), g3: daily activity, g4: pain/discomfort, g5: anxiety/depression
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Tables


Table 1
Variable selection with Cronbach's α
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Table 2
Evaluation of the fitted model
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Table 3
Demographic characteristics and BMI of shift workers with metabolic syndrome (n = 275)
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Table 4
Anthropometric and clinical characteristics, and working hours of shift workers with metabolic syndrome
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Table 5
Dietary habits and daily life of shift workers with metabolic syndrome
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Table 6
Nutrient intakes in shift-workers
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Table 7
Results of direct pathways and total pathways
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Table 8
Results of mediated pathways
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