Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(6) > 1111487

J Nutr Health. 2018 Dec;51(6):556-566. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2018.51.6.556
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Relationship between health behaviors and high level of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol applying cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults: based on the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), 2013 ~ 2015
Bo-Kyoung Cha
Department of Nursing, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam 31962, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-41-660-1071, Email: bkcha@hanseo.ac.kr
Received Nov 12, 2018; Revised Nov 27, 2018; Accepted Dec 18, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed to determine the relationship between health behaviors and high levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) according to cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was based on the sixth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES VI). Participants were 13,841 adults aged 19 years and older. Cardiovascular risk factors were stroke, myocardial infarction or angina, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, aging, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) under 40 mg/dL and HDL-cholesterol over 60 mg/dL. Cardiovascular risk groups were classified as very high risk (stroke, myocardial infarction or angina), high risk (diabetes mellitus), moderate risk (over 2 risk factors), and low risk (below 1 risk factor). The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was calculated using the LDL-cholesterol target level according to cardiovascular risk group.

Results

The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was 25.5% in males and 21.7% in females. Complex sample cross tabulation demonstrated that the high LDL-cholesterol and normal groups differed significantly according to age, education, body mass index, percentage of energy from carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat and n-6 in males and females. These two groups were also significantly different according to smoking in males and the percentage of energy from n-3 in females. Complex sample multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for multiple confounding factors demonstrated that the probability of high LDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with current smoking (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.40–1.99), obesity (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.64–2.31) in males, and current smoking (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.19–2.52), obesity (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39–1.90), percentage of energy from n-3 (quartile 1 vs. quartile 2; OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; quartile 1 vs. quartile 3; OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56–0.94; quartile 1 vs. quartile 4: OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51–0.87) in females.

Conclusion

This study reveals the impact of smoking, obesity, energy percentage of nutrient intake on LDL-cholesterol.

Keywords: adult; low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; carbohydrate; fat; smoking

Tables


Table 1
General Characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk groups (n = 13,841)
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Table 2
Prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol according to cardiovascular risk group
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Table 3
Prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol according to general characteristics and health behaviors
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Table 4
Complex samples multiple logistic regression results: odds ratio of high LDL-cholesterol according to health behaviors
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Notes

This work was supported by grants from Hanseo University in 2018.

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