Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(5) > 1106756

J Nutr Health. 2018 Oct;51(5):480-487. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2018.
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Analysis of Chinese and Japanese consumers' preference for Korean home meal replacement product package design using conjoint analysis
Seon Young You and Min A Lee
Department of Food & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-910-5745, Email:
Received September 21, 2018; Revised October 05, 2018; Accepted October 10, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The study examined the Chinese and Japanese consumers' preference for Korean home meal replacement (HMR) product package designs using conjoint analysis.


The questionnaire survey was completed by 270 consumers living in Beijing, China and Osaka, Japan, over the age of 20 years old, who had previously purchased or consumed a Korean HMR. Based on the attributes and levels within each attribute related to the Korean HMR product package design, 54 profiles were constructed. Of the 54 profiles, 11 combinations were selected using an orthogonal design, and the participants were asked to rank the 11 combinations in order of preference from top to bottom.


The relative importance of the Korean HMR product package design attributes were analyzed. Chinese consumers regarded illustration, ingestion form, concept, and brand name, in that order, to be most important. In the case of Japanese consumers, illustration, concept, ingestion form, and brand name, in that order, were most important. For the illustration attributes, in order of importance, Chinese consumers preferred raw materials, characters, and celebrities, and Japanese consumers preferred characters, raw materials, and celebrities. For the concept attributes, Chinese consumers favored, witty, traditional Korean, and modern concepts, whereas Japanese consumers favored witty, modern, and then traditional Korean concepts. For the ingestion form attributes, both Chinese and Japanese consumers preferred Ready To Eat (RTE), followed by Ready To Heat (RTH), and then Ready To Cook (RTC). For the brand name attributes, both Chinese and Japanese consumers preferred the localized brand name over the Korean brand name.


Differences in the relative importance of Korean HMR product package design attributes were observed among Chinese and Japanese consumers, and there were differences in preference according to the levels within each attribute. These results are expected to provide useful basic data to assist in the future development of differentiated HMR package designs and marketing strategies to meet consumer needs in the market for Korean HMR in China and Japan.

Keywords: home meal replacement; conjoint analysis; package design; preference; market share


Fig. 1
Relative importance of attributes in Korean HMR package design
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Table 1
Demographic profile of subjects
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Table 2
Utilities and relative importance of Korean HMR package design
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Table 3
Hypothetical profile of Korean HMR package design
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Table 4
Utiltiy combination and optimized model of Korean HMR package design
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This research was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (grant number 315068-3).

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