Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(5) > 1106748

J Nutr Health. 2018 Oct;51(5):386-399. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2018.
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effects of adherence to Korean diets on serum GGT and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with hypertension and diabetes
Su-Jin Jung,1 and Soo-Wan Chae1,2
1Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54907, Korea.
2Department of Pharmacology, Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54907, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-63-259-3040, Email:
Received September 17, 2018; Revised October 05, 2018; Accepted October 14, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study examined whether the supply of healthy Korean diets for 12 weeks is effective in improving the risk factors related to serum GGT and cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension and diabetes.


This study selected 41 patients, who were treated with hypertension and diabetes. The Korean diet was composed of cooked-rice, soup, kimchi, and various banchan with one serving called bapsang, which emphasize proportionally high consumption of vegetables and fermented foods, moderate to high consumption of legumes and fish, and low consumption of animal foods. The control group was instead instructed to “eat and exercise as usual” while following the Korean Diabetes Association's dietary guidelines with an intake that can assist in glycemic control, maintain adequate weight, and meet the nutritional requirements. The Korean diet group (21 patients) were served three healthy Korean meals a day for 12 weeks, and the control group (20 patients, who trained in the diet guideline of diabetes) maintained their usual diabetic diet. The serum GGT, blood pressure, heart rate, glycemic control data, cardiovascular risk indicators, and changes in diet measured at the four visits (week 0, 4, 8, and 12) during the course of 12 weeks were compared and evaluated.


The serum GGT (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.007), weight (p = 0.002), Body Mass Index (p = 0.002), body fat mass (p < 0.001), body fat (%) (p < 0.001), and free fatty acid (p = 0.007) in the Korean diet group decreased significantly after the dietary intervention compared to the control group. The amount of intake of rice, whole grains, green vegetables, Kimchi, and soybean fermented food were increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The Korean diet group showed significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the intake of animal protein, lipid, and cholesterol derived from animal foods compared to the control group but significant increases (p < 0.001) in the intake of total calories, folic acid, dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, and vitamins A, E, and C.


In patients with hypertension and diabetes, it was confirmed that regular eating of a healthy Korean diet helps improve the risk factors for GGT and cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Korean diet; cardiovascular disease; serum gamma-glutamyltranserase; hypertensive; diabetes


Table 1
General and clinical characteristics of the study subjects
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Table 2
Change of anthropometric characteristic and blood pressure during the intervention period
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Table 3
Change of serum GGT and cardiovascular disease risk factors during the intervention period
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Table 4
Change of receiving medication in the korean diet group and control group
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Table 5
Mean Korean diet patterns intake of the study subjects during the 12 week intervention period
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Table 6
Mean nutrient intake of the study subjects during the 12 week intervention period.
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This work was supported by grants from the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Korean Food Foundation (2010-2011-01).

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