Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(1) > 1081557

J Nutr Health. 2018 Feb;51(1):31-39. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2018.
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effects of macronutrients in mixed meals on postprandial glycemic response
Mi-Hyeon Park,1 Sang-Jin Chung,1 Jae Eun Shim,2 Sung-Hee Jang,3 and Ki-Sun Nam3
1Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.
3Corporate Technology Office, Pulmuone Co., Ltd. Seoul 06367, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-910-4777, Email:
Received February 21, 2017; Revised April 05, 2017; Accepted January 24, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of study was to determine the effects of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and fiber contents on glycemic responses in a single food item or meal.


Glycemic responses were measured in 30 healthy young adults (17 males and 13 females) with various test foods, including rice, egg whites, bean sprouts, olive oil, noodles, prune, broccoli, Korean dishes, Western dishes, and salad dishes, etc. Test foods were designed to contain various carbohydrate, fat, protein, and fiber contents in single or mixed foods or dishes. After 12 hours of fasting, participants consumed test foods, and the glycemic response was measured for a subsequent 120 min (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). Three hundred and fifty three glycemic responses from 62 foods were collected. The incremental area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each test food for each subject to examine glycemic responses. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify which macronutrient (carbohydrate, fat, protein and fiber) affected the AUC using a mixed model.


Carbohydrates (β= 37.18, p < 0.0001) significantly increased while fat (β= −32.70, p = 0.0054) and fiber (β= −32.01, p = 0.0486) significantly reduced the glycemic response.


It can be concluded that the glycemic response of a meal can be modified depending on the fat and fiber contents of ingredient foods, even though carbohydrate content is maintained.

Keywords: glucose response; area under the curve (AUC); mixed foods; glycemic index


Fig. 1
Increment of area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose after a test meal (sorted by carbohydrate, fiber, fat and protein content (g), respectively)
Click for larger image


Table 1
Macronutrient component of test foods and dishes
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Table 2
Characteristics of subjects
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Table 3
Multivariate regression analysis of area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose with energy and macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber)
Click for larger image


This research was supported by a grant from Pulmuone Co.

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