Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.51(1) > 1081546

J Nutr Health. 2018 Feb;51(1):103-119. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2018.51.1.103
© 2018 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development and relative validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean adults
Sohye Kim,1,4,* Jung Sug Lee,2,* Kyung Hee Hong,3 Hye Sun Yeom,4 Yeon Seo Nam,5 Ju Young Kim,6 and Yoo Kyung Park1
1Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17104, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707 Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dongseo University, Pusan 47011, Korea.
4Nutrition Care Services, Seoul National University of Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13620, Korea.
5Nutrition Department VHS Medical Center, Seoul 05368, Korea.
6Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University of Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13620, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-31-201-3816, Email: ypark@khu.ac.kr

*These authors contributed equally to this article.

Received September 13, 2017; Revised November 06, 2017; Accepted January 23, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was implemented to develop and validate the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) to assess energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals, and vitamins as well as fatty acids and alcohol in Korean adults.

Methods

The SQ-FFQ consisted of 88 food items, and 12 food groups were selected based on information of frequently consumed foods from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Each portion size was categorized as one of three amounts: small (0.5 times), medium (1 time), and large (1.5 times). A total of 111 subjects finished 3-day diet records and the SQ-FFQ. The relative validity of SQ-FFQ was assessed by comparison with the 3-day diet records.

Results

The mean nutrient intakes obtained from the SQ-FFQ were estimated to be greater than those of the two 3-day dietary records. Spearman's correlation coefficient between the two methods was the highest for energy (r = 0.583; p < 0.001) and lowest for saturated fatty acid (r = 0.121). Correlation coefficients were energy (r = 0.583; p < 0.001), carbohydrates (r = 0.500; p < 0.001), protein (r = 0.466; p < 0.001), fat (r = 0.411; p < 0.001), dietary fiber (r = 0.467; p < 0.001), alcohol (r = 0.527; p < 0.001), calcium (r = 0.409; p < 0.001), phosphorus (r = 0.499; p < 0.001), potassium (r = 0.418; p < 0.001), magnesium (r = 0.427; p < 0.001), and zinc (r = 0.464; p < 0.001), respectively, for all subjects.

Conclusion

The developed SQ-FFQ in this study seems to be useful for estimating nutritional status, particularly energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, alcohol, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and zinc of Korean adults.

Keywords: relative validity; 3-day diet records; Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ)

Figures


Fig. 1
Diagram to develop semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Lists of food items of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and standards of classification in each food group
Click for larger image


Table 2
General characteristics of the study subjects
Click for larger image


Table 3
Mean and standard deviation of selected nutrients measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day dietary records (3DRs)
Click for larger image


Table 4
Spearman correlation coefficient between nutrients measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day dietary records (3DRs)
Click for larger image

References
1. Willett WC. In: Nutritional epidemiology. 2nd edition. New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 1998.
2. Block G. A review of validations of dietary assessment methods. Am J Epidemiol 1982;115(4):492–505.
3. Willett WC, Hu FB. Not the time to abandon the food frequency questionnaire: point. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(10):1757–1758.
4. Chu SY, Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Lee J. A comparison of frequency and quantitative dietary methods for epidemiologic studies of diet and disease. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119(3):323–334.
5. Lee RD, Nieman DC. In: Nutritional assessment. 4th edition. Boston (MA): McGraw-Hill; 2007.
6. Zulkifli SN, Yu SM. The food frequency method for dietary assessment. J Am Diet Assoc 1992;92(6):681–685.
7. Horwath CC. Validity of a short food frequency questionnaire for estimating nutrient intake in elderly people. Br J Nutr 1993;70(1):3–14.
8. Kim MK, Lee SS, Ahn YO. Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among middle-aged men in Seoul. Korean J Community Nutr 1996;1(3):376–394.
9. Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Haraldsdóttir J, Ewertz M, Jensen OM. Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food, energy and nutrient intake in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20(4):900–905.
10. Egami I, Wakai K, Kato K, Lin Y, Kawamura T, Tamakoshi A, Aoki R, Kojima M, Nakayama T, Wada M, Ohno Y. A simple food frequency questionnaire for Japanese diet--Part II. Reproducibility and validity for nutrient intakes. J Epidemiol 1999;9(4):227–234.
11. Barrett-Connor E. Nutrition epidemiology: how do we know what they ate. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54 1 Suppl:182S–187S.
12. Paik HY, Ryu JY, CHoi JS, Ahn YJ, Moon HK, Park YS, Lee HK, Kim YI. Development and validation of food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment of Korea adults in rural area. Korean J Nutr 1995;28(9):914–922.
13. Lee HJ, Park SJ, Kim JH, Kim CI, Chang KJ, Yim KS, Kim KW, Choi HM. Development and validation of a computerized semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire program for evaluating the nutritional status of the Korean elderly. Korean J Community Nutr 2002;7(2):277–285.
14. Willett WC, Sampson L, Browne ML, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127(1):188–199.
15. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2010: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.
16. Kim WY, Yang EJ. A study on development and validation of food frequency questionnaire for Koreans. Korean J Nutr 1998;31(2):220–230.
17. Shim JS, Oh KW, Suh I, Kim MY, Sohn CY, Lee EJ, Nam CM. A study on validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean adults. Korean J Community Nutr 2002;7(4):484–494.
18. Yang YJ, Kim MK, Hwang SH, Ahn Y, Shim JE, Kim DH. Relative validities of 3-day food records and the food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Res Pract 2010;4(2):142–148.
19. Bae YJ, Choi HY, Sung MK, Kim MK, Choi MK. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary nutrients for prevention and management of metabolic syndrome in Korea. Nutr Res Pract 2010;4(2):121–127.
20. Kye SH, Moon HK, Park MA, Lee HS. amounts and frequency of foods. Korean J Diet Cult 1996;11(5):569–579.
21. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. 1st revision edition. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society; 2010.
22. Korean Diabetes Association. Korean food exchange lists for diabetes. 3rd edition. Seoul: Korean Diabetes Association; 2010.
23. National Institutes of Health (US). Diet history questionnaire. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2010.
24. Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124(3):453–469.
25. Tylavsky FA, Sharp GB. Misclassification of nutrient and energy intake from use of closed-ended questions in epidemiologic research. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142(3):342–352.
26. Stein AD, Shea S, Basch CE, Contento IR, Zybert P. Consistency of the Willett semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls in estimating nutrient intakes of preschool children. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135(6):667–677.
27. Rosner B, Willett WC. Interval estimates for correlation coefficients corrected for within-person variation: implications for study design and hypothesis testing. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127(2):377–386.
28. Jackson M, Walker S, Cade J, Forrester T, Cruickshank JK, Wilks R. Reproducibility and validity of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire among Jamaicans of African origin. Public Health Nutr 2001;4(5):971–980.
29. Won HS, Kim WY. Development and validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to evaluate nutritional status of Korean elderly. Korean J Nutr 2000;33(3):314–323.
30. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122(1):51–65.
31. Gray GE, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Assessment of three brief methods of estimation of vitamin A and C intakes for a prospective study of cancer: comparison with dietary history. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119(4):581–590.
32. Hong S, Choi Y, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Oe Y, Lee SY, Nam M, Kim YS. Development and validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Korean type 2 diabetic patients. Korean Diabetes J 2010;34(1):32–39.
33. Goldbohm RA, van den, Brants HA, van't Veer P, Al M, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ. Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48(4):253–265.
34. Na YJ, Lee SH. Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults. Nutr Res Pract 2012;6(5):444–450.
35. Kim YO, Kim MK, Lee SA, Yoon YM, Sasaki S. A study testing the usefulness of a dish-based food-frequency questionnaire developed for epidemiological studies in Korea. Br J Nutr 2009;101(8):1218–1227.