Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(6) > 1081541

J Nutr Health. 2017 Dec;50(6):664-678. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Evaluation of the sodium intake reduction plan for a local government and evidence-based reestablishment of objectives: Case of the Seoul Metropolitan Government
A-Hyun Lim,1 Ji-Yun Hwang,2 and Kirang Kim3
1Seoul Food Life Support Center, Seoul Metropolitan Government, Seoul 05699, Korea.
2Department of Foodservice Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-41-550-3472, Email:
Received September 18, 2017; Revised October 10, 2017; Accepted November 15, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



To identify the effectiveness of policy evaluation, consistent monitoring is necessary. This study aimed to carry out mid-term evaluation of objectives and programs related to comprehensive plans for sodium intake reduction by 2020 for Seoul city and then reestablish the objectives of the sodium intake reduction plans.


Literature reviews, data analysis, and reviews of expert focus-groups were performed to evaluate objectives, to develop a new goal, and to identify the priority subjects of the sodium intake reduction programs. In order to examine target populations for the programs, awareness and behaviors related to sodium intakes among Seoul citizens were examined by sex, age, and income level using the 2008~2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.


Current objectives of the sodium intake reduction plan by 2020 for Seoul city were not appropriate, so objectives were reset to 3,600 mg of sodium intake by 2020 among Seoul citizens with 2% reduction per year. Although sodium intake showed a decreasing trend by year, it was still high, especially in men. The sodium intake reduction programs currently in progress have not been assessed at multiple levels across multiple sectors and have only been assessed fragmentarily. For dietary behavior related to sodium intakes by sex, age, and income level, sodium intake was higher in the group with less than 100 g of fruit intake compared to the group with 100 g or more. Subjects aged 30~59 years and the low household income group showed relatively higher sodium intakes. Based on the data analysis and the expert review, the priority subject of the sodium intake reduction programs was determined to be adult men. In terms of a program strategy for sodium intake reduction, multi-level and setting approaches, including work sites, home, and restaurants, were suggested to reduce sodium intakes of the target subject.


The suggested objectives should be consistently monitored by data analysis, and the determined programs need to be phased in over 5 years.

Keywords: sodium intake; dietary behavior; policy evaluation; programs for sodium intake reduction


Table 1
The vision and objectives of ‘A comprehensive plan of reducing sodium intake in seoul 2020’
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Table 2
An analysis of objectives based on the SMART standards
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Table 3
The rate of decrease in sodium intake according to low-sodium strategy by nations
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Table 4
Evaluation of programs to reduce sodium intakes based on the ecological framework
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Table 5
The amount of sodium intake in Seoul by each year (unit: mg)
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Table 6
The amount of sodium intake according to sex and dietary behaviors (unit: mg/1,000 kcal)
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Table 7
The amount of sodium intake according to age groups and dietary behaviors (unit: mg/1,000 kcal)
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Table 8
The amount of sodium intake according to income levels and dietary behaviors (unit: mg/1,000 kcal)
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Table 9
Suggestion of priority programs to reduce sodium intakes
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This work was supported by grants from the Seoul Metropolitan Government (2015).

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