Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(1) > 1081538

J Nutr Health. 2017 Feb;50(1):64-73. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Relationship of sodium consumption with obesity in Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010~2014
Se Young Cheon, Hye Won Wang, Hwa Jung Lee, Kyung Mi Hwang, Hae Seong Yoon and Yoon Jung Kang
Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Cheongju 28159, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-43-719-4413, Email:
Received December 26, 2016; Revised January 19, 2017; Accepted February 03, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Excess sodium intake may contribute to the etiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily sodium intake of less than 2 g. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of sodium intake with obesity in Korean adults.


This study used Dietary intake and Health data on 22,321 subjects aged 30 years and over from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010~2014. Information on dietary intake was obtained by the one day 24-hour recall method in KNHANES, and sodium intake was classified into five groups (< 2,000 mg, 2,000~4,000 mg, 4,000~6,000 mg, 6,000~8,000 mg, ≥ 8,000 mg). Obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m2. Intake of sodium and obesity status were analyzed by logistic regression with SPSS Statistics 23.


Men tended to have a higher sodium intake than women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, year, daily energy intake, education level, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, and chronic diseases and comparing the highest sodium intake group (≥ 8,000 mg) with the lowest intake group (< 2,000 mg), the OR of obesity was 1.351 (95% CI: 1.032~1.767) in men. The OR of obesity in the sodium intake group (4,000~6,000 mg) was 1.232 (95% CI: 1.063~1.427) in women.


Our findings suggest an independent relationship between sodium intake and as increased risk of obesity in Korean adults, implying the necessity for future research on low-sodium diet intervention in relation to obesity.

Keywords: sodium intake; energy intake; obesity; body mass index


Fig. 1
Flow chart of subject's selection
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Table 1
General characteristics according to gender
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Table 2
Anthropometrics and health-related variables according to daily sodium intake
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Table 3
Anthropometrics and health-related variables according to daily sodium intake in men
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Table 4
Anthropometrics and health-related variables according to daily sodium intake in women
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Table 5
Risk for obesity according to daily sodium intake
Click for larger image


This research was supported by a grant (16161MFDS081) from Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2016.

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