Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(6) > 1081531

Yoon, Song, and Cho: Association between nutrient intake and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein level in Korean adults: Using the data from 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey



There have been limited studies investigating the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), metabolic diseases, and dietary factors in Korean adults. Here, we examined the association between nutrient intake and serum hsCRP among Korean adults.


Using data on 2,624 healthy Korean adults (1,537 women and 1,087 men) from the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary factors were analyzed once the subjects were grouped into either sex, age, or BMI. Nutrient intake was evaluated using the dietary data obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Based on the guidelines of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association, hsCRP level was classified as HCRPG (High CRP Group, hsCRP > 1 mg/L) and LCRPG (Low CRP Group, hsCRP ≤ 1 mg/L). Proc surveyreg procedure was performed to examine the associations between nutrient intake and hsCRP after adjustment for potential confounding variables.


The average hsCRP level of healthy Korean adults was 0.95 ±0.03 mg/L (0.97 ±0.04 mg/L in men, 0.92 ±0.05 mg/L in women). Obese subjects had significantly higher hsCRP than non-obese subjects in both sexes. The hsCRP level was positively associated with current smoking, physical inactivity, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure and inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol. LCRPG had significantly higher intake of dietary fiber compared to HCRPG in women. High hsCRP level was associated with more dietary cholesterol intake but less omega-3 fatty acid intake among subjects aged ≥ 50y. HCRPG of obese subjects had higher intakes of fat and saturated fatty acid than LCRPG.


The hsCRP level is closely associated with several lifestyle variables and nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. Individuals with high hsCRP level show low intakes of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids but high intakes of dietary fat and cholesterol. Our findings suggest that a potential anti-inflammatory role for nutrients and lifestyle in the Korean adult population.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Flow chart of study subject's selection

Fig. 2

Distribution of hsCRP levels by sex (A, B, C, D), obesity (A, B) and age (A, C, D). Normal: BMI < 25.0 kg/m2, Obesity: BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2, yr: years old. hsCRP levels are expressed as mean ± SE. p-value was based on the result from the t-test. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001

Table 1

General characteristics of subjects by sex


1) p-value were obtained by chi-square test or t-test. 2) Data were represented %. 3) BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 4) Data were represented means ± SE.

Table 2

Health-related variables and anthropometric measurement between HCRPG and LCRPG subjects by sex, age and BMI


1) LCRPG: Low CRP Group (hsCRP ≤ 1 mg/L) 2) HCRPG: High CRP Group (hsCRP > 1 mg/L) 3) p-value were obtained by chi-square test or t-test. 4) Data were represented %. 5) BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 6) Data were represented means ± SE.

Table 3

Nutrient intakes of subjects by sex and CRP group


1) LCRPG: Low CRP Group (hsCRP ≤ 1 mg/L) 2) HCRPG: High CRP Group (hsCRP > 1 mg/L) 3) Adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), income (lowest, medium-low, medium-high, or highest), smoking status (yes or no), alcohol consumption (yes or no) and physical activity (yes or no) 4) Nutrient intakes were estimated by 24-hour recall method and data were represented mean ± SE. 5) mg/1,000 kcal

Table 4

Nutrient intakes of subjects by age and CRP group


1) LCRPG: Low CRP Group (hsCRP ≤ 1 mg/L) 2) HCRPG: High CRP Group (hsCRP > 1 mg/L) 3) Adjusted for sex (women or men), BMI (continuous), income (lowest, medium-low, medium-high, or highest), smoking status (yes or no), alcohol consumption (yes or no) and physical activity (yes or no) 4) Nutrient intakes were estimated by 24-hour recall method and data were represented mean ± SE. 5) mg/1,000 kcal

Table 5

Nutrient intakes of subjects by BMI and CRP group


1) LCRPG: Low CRP Group (hsCRP ≤ 1 mg/L) 2) HCRPG: High CRP Group (hsCRP > 1 mg/L) 3) Adjusted for age (continuous), sex (women or men), income (lowest, medium-low, medium-high, or highest), smoking status (yes or no), alcohol consumption (yes or no) and physical activity (yes or no) 4) Nutrient intakes were estimated by 24-hour recall method and data were represented Mean ± SE. 5) mg/1,000 kcal


This research was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016-1964-01), Chungnam National University Research grant and 2017 Hannam University Research fund.


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