Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(5) > 1081526

J Nutr Health. 2017 Oct;50(5):504-518. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.5.504
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of processed food database using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data
Mi Ock Yoon,1,** Hyun Sook Lee,2,** Kirang Kim,3 Jae Eun Shim,4 and Ji-Yun Hwang5
1Nutrition Information Committee, The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul 06130, Korea.
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dongseo University, Busan 47011, Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Gyeonggido 16890, Korea.
4Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.
5Department of Foodservice Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-781-7521, Email: jiyunhk@smu.ac.kr

**These two authors contributed equally to this work.

Received August 01, 2017; Revised August 09, 2017; Accepted October 17, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to develop a processed foods database (DB) for estimation of processed food intake in the Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES).

Methods

Analytical values of processed foods were collected from food composition tables of national institutions (Development Institute, Rural Development Administration), the US Department of Agriculture, and previously reported scientific journals. Missing or unavailable values were substituted, calculated, or imputed. The nutrient data covered 14 nutrients, including energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. The processed food DB covered a total of 4,858 food items used in the KNHANES. Each analytical value per food item was selected systematically based on the priority criteria of data sources.

Results

Level 0 DB was developed based on a list of 8,785 registered processed foods with recipes of ready-to-eat processed foods, one food composition table published by the national institution, and nutrition facts obtained directly from manufacturers or indirectly via web search. Level 1 DB included information of 14 nutrients, and missing or unavailable values were substituted, calculated, or imputed at level 2. Level 3 DB evaluated the newly constructed nutrient DB for processed foods using the 2013 KNHANES. Mean intakes of total food and processed food were 1,551.4 g (males 1,761.8 g, females 1,340.8 g) and 129.4 g (males 169.9 g, females 88.8 g), respectively. Processed foods contributed to nutrient intakes from 5.0% (fiber) to 12.3% (protein) in the Korean population.

Conclusion

The newly developed nutrient DB for processed foods contributes to accurate estimation of nutrient intakes in the Korean population. Consistent and regular update and quality control of the DB is needed to obtain accurate estimation of usual intakes using data from the KNHANES.

Keywords: processed foods; nutrient database; KNHANES; evaluation

Figures


Fig. 1
Overall flow of development of processed food database
1) Rural Development Administration. 8th revision Food Composition Table, 2011, 2) Manufacturer-provided document, 3) Manufacturer's report data, 4) Internet search data, 2015, 5) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26, 2013
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Fig. 2
Principles of data substitutions for a newly constructed processed food DB
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Fig. 3
Data matching 2013 KNHANES with a new constructed processed food DB
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Tables


Table 1
Characteristics of data sources
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Table 2
Resources and limitations of collected data
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Table 3
Data calculability according to food types
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Table 4
Number of food according to data processing method for the Level 2 DB
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Table 5
Estimation of processed food intakes in the Korean population using the KNHANES VI-1 (2013)
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Table 6
Comparison of Nutrient Intakes of the Korean population using the KNHANES VI-1 (2013) before and after using a newly constructed processed food DB
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Notes

This work was supported by Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015E3500300).

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