Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(5) > 1081524

Ahn, Jun, Kim, Ha, and Joung: Current status and trends in estimated intakes and major food groups of vitamin E among Korean adults: Using the 1~6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine trends in dietary vitamin E intakes and contributing food groups among Korean adults.

Methods

This study included 66,695 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998, 2001, 2005, 2007~2009, 2010~2012, 2013~2015). We estimated individual daily intakes of α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherol, and total vitamin E by linking food consumption data with a vitamin E database of commonly consumed foods.

Results

Daily vitamin E intake significantly increased from 6.4 mg α-TE/d in 1998 to 7.7 mg α-TE/d in 2013~2015 (p for trend < 0.0001) among men as well as from 5.4 mg α-TE/d in 1998 to 6.5 mg α-TE/d in 2013~2015 among women (p for trend < 0.0001). However, the intake of vitamin E was lower than the adequate intake (AI) of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2015 (2015 KDRI). In 2013~2015, men consumed 6.5 mg/d of α-tocopherol, 0.5 mg/d of β-tocopherol, 6.0 mg/d of γ-tocopherol, and 3.9 mg/d of δ-tocopherol, whereas women consumed 5.7 mg/d of α-tocopherol, 0.4 mg/d of β-tocopherol, 4.8 mg/d of γ-tocopherol, and 2.8 mg/d of δ-tocopherol. The major food groups contributing to vitamin E intake were vegetables (men: 23.3%, women: 22.7%), grains (men: 14.5%, women: 13.9%), and eggs (men: 13.0%, women: 12.5%).

Conclusion

This study provides scientific evidence for vitamin E intake in Korean adults. Since the current intake of vitamin E was lower than the reference intakes set by 2015 KDRI, dietary vitamin E intake should be monitored regularly among Korean adults.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Dietary intakes of vitamin E among Korean adults

jnh-50-483-i001

1) Values are mean ± SE. 2) Age-standardized mean ± SE were calculated using the age- and sex-specific structures of the estimated population in the 2005 Korea Census. 3) Duncan's test was performed for post hoc analysis. 4) The numbers of missing values were respectively 1,093 (men, education level), 35 (men, household income), 1,130 (women, education level), and 56 (women, household income).

Table 2

Trends of vitamin E intakes among Korean adults

jnh-50-483-i002

1) Values are mean ± SE. 2) Age-standardized mean ± SE were calculated using the age- and sex-specific structures of the estimated population in the 2005 Korea Census. 3) p for trend values were calculated using linear regression. 4) Duncan's test was performed for post hoc analysis. 5) The numbers of missing values were respectively 4 (II, men, education level), 183 (II, men, household income), 4 (II, women, education level), 222 (II, women, household income), 41 (III, men, education level), 31 (III, men, household income), 47 (III, women, education level), 31 (III, women, household income), 568 (IV, men, education level), 161 (IV, men, household income), 469 (IV, women, education level), 239 (IV, women, household income), 773 (V, men, education level), 91 (V, men, household income), 767 (V, women, education level), 143 (V, women, household income), 1,093 (VI, men, education level), 35 (VI, men, household income), 1,130 (VI, women, education level), and 56 (VI, women, household income).

Table 3

Contribution of food groups to vitamin E intakes among Korean adults

jnh-50-483-i003

1) Values are mean ± SE.

Table 4

Trends of contributing food groups to vitamin E intakes among Korean adults

jnh-50-483-i004

1) Values are mean ± SE. 2) Age-standardized mean ± SE were calculated using the age- and sex-specific structures of the estimated population in the 2005 Korea Census. 3) P for trend values were calculated using linear regression.

Notes

This work was carried out with the support of ‘Research Program for Agricultural Science and Technology Development’, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration (Project No. PJ011637022017).

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