Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(5) > 1081521

Park and Kim: Relationship between dairy products, fish and shellfish intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in prediabetes: based on the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-3) 2015

Abstract

Purpose

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of inter-connected metabolic disorders involving the glucose metabolism, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. The worldwide prevalence has been rapidly increasing to approximately 20~25%, and the prevalence in Korea as of 2012 was reported to be 31.3%. The association of MetS with various diseases needs to be analyzed by conducting an investigation of frequently consumed foods, such as dairy products, fish, and shellfish in prediabetic subjects.

Methods

The dietary intake of subjects who met the criteria of the study from January to December 2015 was assessed using the 24-hour recall method. After adjusting the age, sex, BMI, and total energy intake, which are confounding factors that may affect the dietary intake of the subjects, the associations of dairy products, fish, and shellfish intake with the MetS risk factors was analyzed.

Results

In prediabetes, the intake of subjects who consumed more than the dairy products median (187.0 g) and the elevation risk of TC [OR, 2.369; 95% CI, 1.057 to 5.312] showed a significant positive association. In prediabetes, the intake of subjects who consumed more than the fish and shellfish median (44.0 g) and the elevation risk of BP showed a significantly weak negative association [OR, 0.073; 95% CI, 0.010 to 0.520]. The probability that the blood LDL cholesterol was ≥ 100 mg/dL decreased 0.397 times [95% CI, 0.189 to 0.832].

Conclusion

To control the metabolic risk factors of pre-diabetic and vascular disease subjects, proper dairy, fish and shellfish intake will be important.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General characteristics of subjects

jnh-50-447-i001

All estimates were weighted and calculated by considering the complex survey design.

1) P value were obtained form chi-square test for categorical variable and from general linear model (GLM) for continuous variables. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. 2) Data are expressed as the number of subjects for each category (percentage) or mean ± SD. 3) Stars indicate significance: ***p < 0.000

Table 2

Subjects characteristics according to dairy intakes and the presence of prediabetes

jnh-50-447-i002

All estimates were weighted and calculated by considering the complex survey design. Subjects were stratified by median cut point of dairy intakes (187.0 g).

1) P-value were obtained form chi-square test for categorical variable and from general linear model (GLM) for continuous variables. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. 2) Data are expressed as the number of subjects for each category (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation. 3) Stars indicate significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.000

Abbreviation: SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Table 3

Subjects characteristics according to dietary fish, shellfish intakes and the presence of prediabetes

jnh-50-447-i003

All estimates were weighted and calculated by considering the complex survey design.

1) Subjects were stratified by median cut point of fish, shellfish intakes (44.0 g). 2) P-value were obtained form chi-square test for categorical variable and from general linear model (GLM) for continuous variables. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as significant.

3) Data are expressed as the number of subjects for each category (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation. 4) Stars indicate significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.000

Abbreviation: SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GOT, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase; GPT, glutamic pyruvate transaminase; WBC, white blood cell; RBC, red blood cell; hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Table 4

Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the metabolic syndrome risk factors according to dairy product intake in subjects (n = 759)

jnh-50-447-i004

Model 1: unadjusted, Model 2: adjusted for age and sex, Model 3: adjusted for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake

By multiple logistic regression analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as significant.

Stars indicate significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.000

Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval

Table 5

Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the metabolic syndrome risk factors according to fish and shellfish intakes in subjects (n = 1,520)

jnh-50-447-i005

Model 1: unadjusted, Model 2: adjusted for age and sex, Model 3: adjusted for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake

By multiple logistic regression analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as significant.

Stars indicate significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.000

Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval

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