Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(4) > 1081515

J Nutr Health. 2017 Aug;50(4):391-401. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.4.391
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Estimated flavonoid intakes according to socioeconomic status of Korean adults based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2012
Seong-Ah Kim,1,** Yang Hei,1,** Shinyoung Jun,1 Gyung-Ah Wie,2 Sangah Shin,3,4 Eunju Hong,5 and Hyojee Joung1,6
1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Research Institute & Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si 10408, Korea.
3Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080, Korea.
4Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.
5Department of Economics and Finance, Hanyang Cyber University, Seoul 04763, Korea.
6Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2781, Email: hjjoung@snu.ac.kr

**Co-first author

Received June 07, 2017; Revised July 09, 2017; Accepted August 14, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary flavonoid intakes of Korean adults according to socioeconomic status.

Methods

Using data from the 2007~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 31,112 subjects aged over 19 years were included in this study. We estimated individuals' daily intakes of total flavonoids and seven flavonoid subclasses, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidin, and isoflavones,by linking food consumption data with the flavonoids database for commonly consumed Korean foods. We compared intakes of flavonoids according to the levels of household income and education.

Results

Average dietary flavonoid intakes of the study subjects were 321.8 mg/d in men and 308.3 mg/d in women. Daily flavonoid intakes were positively associated with household income level (p < 0.0001) and education level (p < 0.0001). The subjects in the highest household income and highest education level group (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.30~0.45, p < 0.0001 in men, OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.41~0.60, p < 0.0001 in women) had a lower likelihood of having low total flavonoid intake (less than 25 percentile) compared to the lowest household income and lowest education level group. The food group that contributed to total flavonoid intake with the biggest difference between the lowest and highest groups for both household income level and education level was beverages.

Conclusion

This study shows that socioeconomic status was positively associated with flavonoid intake in a representative Korean population. Further research is needed to analyze the association of flavonoid intake with health outcomes according to socioeconomic status such as household income and education level.

Keywords: Flavonoids intake; socioeconomic status; household income; education; KNHANES

Figures


Fig. 1
Total flavonoid intake from food groups according to the household income and education level by sex: (a) Total flavonoid intake by household income level, (b) Total flavonoid intake by education level. *Adjusted for age, obesity, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status and energy intake.
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Fig. 2
The odds ratio for daily total flavonoid intake < 25 percentile in study population according to the household income and education level by sex. *Adjusted for age, obesity, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status and energy intake. 1) ‘Low’ meant first and second quartile, and ‘High’ meant third and fourth quartile.
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Tables


Table 1
Total flavonoid intakes according to characteristics of study subjects by sex
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Table 2
Intakes of flavonoids and nutrients according to household income level1)
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Table 3
Intakes of flavonoids and nutrients according to education level
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