Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(4) > 1081511

J Nutr Health. 2017 Aug;50(4):350-360. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.4.350
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Association of iron status and food intake with blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adolescent girls and women: Based on the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jiyoung Kim,1,** Minseo Shin,1,** Sunghee Kim,2 Jihyun Seo,1 Hyesun Ma,1 and Yoon Jung Yang1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.
2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-940-4465, Email: yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr

**These two authors equally contributed to this work.

Received March 30, 2017; Revised April 21, 2017; Accepted July 31, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study examined and compared the associations of the iron status and food intake with the blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations among Korean adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women.

Methods

The data from the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was used. The subjects were classified into three groups: adolescent girls (n = 268), premenopausal women (n = 1,157), and postmenopausal women (n = 446). The iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, and iron concentrations, as well as the total iron binding capacity (TIBC). The food intake was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire.

Results

The blood heavy metal concentrations and poisoning rate in postmenopausal women were higher than in the other groups. The iron status in the adolescent girls and postmenopausal women was higher than that in the premenopausal women. In the adolescent girls, the iron status was inversely associated with the blood cadmium concentration. The dairy food intake was inversely related to the blood lead and cadmium concentrations. In premenopausal women, the iron status was inversely associated with the cadmium concentrations. The fish and shellfish food intakes were positively associated with the mercury concentrations. In postmenopausal women, the iron status was positively associated with the mercury and cadmium concentrations. Fast foods and fried foods were inversely associated with the lead concentration.

Conclusion

The premenopausal women showed a lower iron status than the adolescent girls and postmenopausal women. The associations of the iron status with the blood heavy metal concentrations were different among the adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. In addition, the relationships of the food intakes with the blood heavy metal concentrations differed among adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Further studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

Keywords: iron status; lead; mercury; cadmium; food intake

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of the subjects
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Table 2
Pearson's correlation coefficients among blood heavy metal concentrations, age and body mass index
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Table 3
Blood heavy metal concentrations and poisoning rate of lead, mercury and cadmium
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Table 4
Iron status and deficiency rate based on hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity
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Table 5
Associations between blood heavy metal concentrations and iron status of the subjects
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Table 6
Associations between blood heavy metal concentrations and food consumption frequency (servings/day)
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Notes

This study was supported by the Dongduk Women's University Grant.

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