Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(4) > 1081507

J Nutr Health. 2017 Aug;50(4):313-324. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Association between intake of antioxidant vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk among Korean adults
Seoeun Ahn,1 Shinyoung Jun,1 Minji Kang,2 Sangah Shin,3 Gyung-Ah Wie,4 Hyun Wook Baik,5 and Hyojee Joung1,6
1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Center for Gendered Innovations in Science and Technology Researches (GISTER), Korea Federation of Women's Science & Technology Associations, Seoul 06130, Korea.
3Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.
4Department of Clinical Nutrition, Research Institute & Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si 10408, Korea.
5Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Clinical Nutrition, DMC Bundang Jesaeng Hospital, Seongnam 13590, Korea.
6Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2831, Email:
Received May 11, 2017; Revised May 21, 2017; Accepted July 14, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intake of antioxidant vitamins and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Korean adults.


A total of 614 subjects aged 30~60 years were recruited from those who received a medical checkup at a general hospital in South Korea between 2009 and 2012. Presence of MetS was determined based on criteria issued by the NCEP ATP III. Intakes of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, retinol, carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E) were estimated by combining 3-day diet records with an antioxidant vitamin database for common Korean foods. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and MetS.


Men in the highest tertile for retinol (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.23~0.71, P for trend = 0.0009), carotenoids (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.32~1.00, P for trend = 0.0470), and vitamin E (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30~0.92, P for trend = 0.0190) intakes had a lower likelihood of having Mets than those in the lowest tertile. The OR of high fasting blood glucose among men in the highest tertile for vitamin A (µg RE: OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32~0.97, P for trend = 0.0417, µg RAE: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29~0.92, P for trend = 0.0211), carotenoids (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.23~0.73, P for trend = 0.0036), and vitamin E (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26~0.82, P for trend = 0.0080) intakes was lower than those in the lowest tertile. In women, subjects in the highest tertile of retinol intakes had a lower prevalence of MetS than those in the lowest tertile group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30~0.98). The OR for abdominal obesity was lower among women with the highest vitamin A (µg RE) intakes compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.28~0.93, P for trend = 0.0293).


These results suggest that dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins might be associated with reduced risk of having MetS among Korean adults.

Keywords: antioxidant vitamins; metabolic syndrome; Korean adult


Table 1
General characteristics of study subjects
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Table 2
Comparison of daily antioxidant vitamin intakes between MetS cases and controls
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Table 3
Odds ratios and 95% CIs for metabolic syndrome risk factors according to tertiles of antioxidant vitamin intakes
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Table 4
Comparison of dietary antioxidant vitamin intakes from each food group between MetS cases and controls
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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2014R1A2A2A01003138).

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