Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(3) > 1081502

J Nutr Health. 2017 Jun;50(3):270-283. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Coffee consumption behaviors, dietary habits, and dietary nutrient intakes according to coffee intake amount among university students
Sun-Hyo Kim
Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-41-850-8307, Email:
Received May 11, 2017; Revised May 17, 2017; Accepted June 13, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study was conducted to examine coffee consumption behaviors, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes by coffee intake amount among university students.


Questionnaires were distributed to 300 university students randomly selected in Gongju. Dietary survey was administered during two weekdays by the food record method.


Subjects were divided into three groups: NCG (non-coffee group), LCG (low coffee group, 1~2 cups/d), and HCG (high coffee group, 3 cups/d) by coffee intake amount and subjects' distribution. Coffee intake frequency was significantly greater in the HCG compared to the LCG (p < 0.001). The HCG was more likely to intake dripped coffee with or without milk and/or sugar than the LCG (p < 0.05). More than 80% of coffee drinkers chose their favorite coffee or accompanying snacks regardless of energy content. More than 75% of coffee takers did not eat accompanying snacks instead of meals, and the HCG ate them more frequently than LCG (p < 0.05). Breakfast skipping rate was high while vegetable and fruit intakes were very low in most subjects. Subjects who drank carbonated drinks, sweet beverages, or alcohol were significantly greater in number in the LCG and HCG than in the NCG (p < 0.01). Energy intakes from coffee were 0.88 ± 5.62 kcal/d and 7.07 ± 16.93 kcal/d for the LCG and HCG. For total subjects, daily mean dietary energy intake was low at less than 72% of estimated energy requirement. Levels of vitamin C and calcium were lower than the estimated average requirements while that of vitamin D was low (24~34% of adequate intake). There was no difference in nutrient intakes by coffee intake amount, except protein, vitamin A, and niacin.


Coffee intake amount did not affect dietary nutrient intakes. Dietary habits were poor,and most nutrient intakes were lower than recommend levels. High intakes of coffee seemed to be related with high consumption of sweet beverages and alcohol. Therefore, it is necessary to improve nutritional intakes and encourage proper water intake habits, including coffee intake, for improved nutritional status of subjects.

Keywords: coffee intakes; dietary habits; beverage consumption; nutrient intake; university students


Table 1
Coffee intake and general characteristics
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Table 2
Coffee consumption behaviors of coffee consumers during last one year
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Table 3
Consumption behaviors of coffee and accompanying snacks of coffee consumers
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Table 4
Coffee intake and dietary behaviors during last one year
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Table 5
Coffee intake and beverage drinking during last one year
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Table 6
Daily dietary nutrient intakes of total subjects including males and females according to daily coffee intake amount
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Table 7
Ratio of dietary nutrient intakes of reference intake for total subjects including males and females accroding to daily coffee intake amount
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This work was supported by the research grant of the Kongju National University in 2015.

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