Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(3) > 1081501

J Nutr Health. 2017 Jun;50(3):257-269. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.3.257
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
3-in-1 coffee consumption is associated with metabolic factors in adults: Based on 2012~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jee-Young Yeon,1 and Yun-Jung Bae2
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Seowon University, Chongju 28674, Korea.
2Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu 11644, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-31-870-3572, Email: byj@shinhan.ac.kr
Received April 24, 2017; Revised May 04, 2017; Accepted June 07, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of metabolic factors in adults consuming 3-in-1 coffee from the 2012~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Methods

A total of 5,872 subjects (male = 2,253, female = 3,619) aged 19~64 yrs were presented with food frequency questionnaires, and they were classified according to coffee consumption level and types of coffee consumed (black coffee, ≤1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee, > 1 and ≤2 times/day of 3-in-1 coffee, > 2 times/day of 3-in-1 coffee). Analysis was conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19~39 (male = 968 and female = 1,285) and 40~64 (male = 1,468, female = 2,151) yrs old.

Results

Black coffee consumption was associated with a significantly higher education level and household income compared to 3-in-1 coffee consumption in both males and females. The > 2 times/day group had significantly more smokers compared to other patterns of coffee consumption in both males and females. In the 40~64 yrs age group, males and females in the > 2 times/day group had significantly lower density of micronutrients such as fiber, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus,and potassium compared with black coffee consumption. In the 40~64 yrs age group, males (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.13~3.64) in the > 2 times/day group were at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared with black coffee consumption after multivariable adjustment.

Conclusion

We found that frequency of 3-in-1 coffee consumption may be associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome in males aged 40~64 yrs.

Keywords: 3-in 1 coffee; black coffee; consumption; metabolic factors; adults

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of subjects according to the frequency of coffee consumption in male
Click for larger image


Table 2
General characteristics of subjects according to the frequency of coffee consumption in female
Click for larger image


Table 3
Metabolic bio-markers of subjects according to the frequency of coffee consumption
Click for larger image


Table 4
Nutrient intakes of subjects according to the frequency of coffee consumption
Click for larger image


Table 5
ORs (95% CIs) of metabolic bio-markers risk according to the frequency of coffee consumption
Click for larger image

References
1. Grigg D. The worlds of tea and coffee: patterns of consumption. GeoJournal 2002;57(4):283–294.
2. Je Y, Jeong S, Park T. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2014;23(4):691–702.
3. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2015: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-3). Sejong: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016.
4. Butt MS, Sultan MT. Coffee and its consumption: benefits and risks. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51(4):363–373.
5. Higdon JV, Frei B. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46(2):101–123.
6. Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, Ling WH, Chen WQ, Wang CL, Chen YM. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol 2009;137(3):216–225.
7. Yu X, Bao Z, Zou J, Dong J. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer 2011;11(1):96.
8. Saito E, Inoue M, Sawada N, Shimazu T, Yamaji T, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Noda M, Iso H, Tsugane S. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;101(5):1029–1037.
9. Huxley R, Lee CM, Barzi F, Timmermeister L, Czernichow S, Perkovic V, Grobbee DE, Batty D, Woodward M. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2009;169(22):2053–2063.
10. Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Suh I, Klag MJ. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153(4):353–362.
11. Kim EK, Choe JS, Kim EK. Correlation of nutrient intake, obesity-related anthropometrics, and blood lipid status with instant coffeemix intakes in Gangneung and Samcheok residents. Korean J Community Nutr 2013;18(2):134–141.
12. Lee Y, Son J, Jang J, Park K. Coffee and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health 2016;49(4):213–222.
13. Choi SY, Kim YH. Effects of green tea or coffee consumption on serum lipid profiles. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2010;39(9):1279–1285.
14. Kim EK, Jun DW, Jang EC, Kim SH, Choi HS. Effect of coffee and green tea consumption on liver enzyme and metabolic syndrome in Korean. J Korea Acad Ind Coop Soc 2012;13(6):2570–2578.
15. Kim HJ, Cho S, Jacobs DR Jr, Park K. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014;106(1):145–153.
16. Lee S, Park HS, Kim SM, Kwon HS, Kim DY, Kim DJ, Cho GJ, Han JH, Kim SR, Park CY, Oh SJ, Lee CB, Kim KS, Oh SW, Kim YS, Choi WH, Yoo HJ. Cut-off points of waist circumference for defining abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Korean J Obes 2006;15(1):1–9.
17. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Costa F. American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005;112(17):2735–2752.
18. Shin J, Kim SY, Yoon J. Status of coffee intake in South Korea: analysis of 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Community Living Sci 2016;27(1):83–93.
19. Bae YJ, Kim MH. A study evaluating nutrient intake and diet quality in female college students according to coffee consumption. J Korean Diet Assoc 2009;15(2):128–138.
20. Lim YH, Kim SH. Survey on consumption of coffee beverages and energy contribution ratios of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks by college students in Daejeon city and Chungnam province in Korea. Korean J Food Cult 2012;27(3):240–250.
21. Lee YJ, You JS, Chang KJ. Dietary habits score, nutrients intake and dietary quality related to coffee consumption of college students in Incheon. J Nutr Health 2013;46(6):560–572.
22. Kim K, Kim K, Park SM. Association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the level of coffee consumption among Korean women. PLoS One 2016;11(12):e0167007.
23. Cavin C, Holzhaeuser D, Scharf G, Constable A, Huber WW, Schilter B. Cafestol and kahweol, two coffee specific diterpenes with anticarcinogenic activity. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40(8):1155–1163.
24. Higgins LG, Cavin C, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Hayes JD. Induction of cancer chemopreventive enzymes by coffee is mediated by transcription factor Nrf2. Evidence that the coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol confer protection against acrolein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008;226(3):328–337.
25. Nordenvall C, Oskarsson V, Wolk A. Inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women but not in men. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015;13(6):1096–1102.e1.
26. Lee J, Lee JE, Kim Y. Relationship between coffee consumption and stroke risk in Korean population: the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study. Nutr J 2017;16(1):7.
27. Renouf M, Marmet C, Guy P, Fraering AL, Longet K, Moulin J, Enslen M, Barron D, Cavin C, Dionisi F, Rezzi S, Kochhar S, Steiling H, Williamson G. Nondairy creamer, but not milk, delays the appearance of coffee phenolic acid equivalents in human plasma. J Nutr 2010;140(2):259–263.