Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(3) > 1081498

J Nutr Health. 2017 Jun;50(3):236-245. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.3.236
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effect of oral guava leaf extract administration on antioxidant and vasculoprotective activity in ovariectomized rats
Eun-Jung Ko, Yanan Liu and Hyun-Sook Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04307, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-710-9469, Email: hskim@sookmyung.ac.kr
Received April 25, 2017; Revised May 10, 2017; Accepted June 07, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of guava leaf extract (GLE) supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activity and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA in ovariectomized rats.

Methods

All animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 7 for each group): non-ovariectomized control (Sham), the ovariectomized control (OVX), ovariectomy + 150 mg/kg b.w. of GLE (OVX·GL), and ovariectomy + 300 mg/kg b.w. of GLE (OVX·GH). Treatment groups were administered GLE for 8 weeks every day.

Results

Body weight gain was significantly reduced in the OVX·GL group compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The level of serum 17β-estradiol (E2) was significantly lower in the OVX groups than the Sham group (p < 0.05). Serum triglyceride (TG) and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different between all groups. However, serum total cholesterol (TC) level was significantly reduced in the OVX·GH group compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). Serum free fatty acid (FFA) level and liver TG level were significantly reduced in both OVX·GL and OVX·GH groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly elevated in the GLE groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression level of GPx was not affected by ovariectomy. However, administration of GLE resulted in significantly increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and catalase (CAT) mRNA expression levels in the liver (p < 0.05). In addition, liver nitric oxide (NO) level was significantly reduced in the OVX·GH group compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). Expression level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was significantly elevated in the OVX·GH group compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

These results suggest that GLE could have protective effects in OVX rats by stimulating eNOS expression and improving the antioxidant defense system.

Keywords: guava leaf extract; ovariectomy; glutathione peroxidase; catalase; endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Figures


Fig. 1
Liver malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels of each group. (a) Liver malondialdehyde, (b) Liver nitric oxide. Sham; non-ovariectomized control, OVX; ovariectomized control, OVX·GL; ovariectomy + 150 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, OVX·GH; ovariectomy + 300 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, ns; not significant. Values are mean ± SD (n = 7 for each group). The different letters (a > b > c) within a column indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) determined by Duncan's multiple range.
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Fig. 2
Serum catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels of each group. (a) Serum catalase, (b) Serum glutathione peroxidase. Sham; non-ovariectomized control, OVX; ovariectomized control, OVX·GL; ovariectomy + 150 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, OVX·GH; ovariectomy + 300 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, ns; not significant. Values are mean ± SD (n = 7 for each group). The different letters (a > b > c) within a column indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) determined by Duncan's multiple range test.
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Fig. 3
mRNA expression of Nrf2, CAT, GPx and eNOS in liver of each group. (a) Nrf2; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, (b) CAT; catalase, (c) GPx; glutathione peroxidase, (d) eNOS; endothelial nitric oxide synthase. 1) Sham; non-ovariectomized control, OVX; ovariectomized control, OVX·GL; ovariectomy + 150 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, OVX·GH; ovariectomy + 300 mg/b.w. guava leaf extract, 2) ns; not significant. Values are mean ± SD (n = 7 for each group). The different letters (a > b > c) within a column indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) determined by Duncan's multiple range test.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Sequences of primers for RT-PCR
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Table 2
Serum estradiol, body weight, food intake, food efficiency ratio, and organ weight1)
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Table 3
Serum lipid profile and liver triglyceride level1)
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