Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(2) > 1081489

J Nutr Health. 2017 Apr;50(2):158-170. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.2.158
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Study on relationship between milk intake and prevalence rates of chronic diseases in adults based on 5th and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data
Sehyug Kwon,1 and Jung-Sug Lee2
1Department of Statistics, Hannam University, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-910-6438, Email: leejs1945@kookmin.ac.kr
Received March 31, 2017; Revised April 06, 2017; Accepted April 13, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between milk intake and prevalence rates of chronic diseases using KNHANES data, and the significance of the relationship was tested based on meditators, socioeconomic status (income, education), dietary behaviors (smoking, alcohol drinking, breakfast, and eating out), and physical activity (walking, medium, and high).

Methods

Using the 5th and 6th survey data of KNHANES, milk intake rates and presence of seven chronic diseases were summarized and analyzed by ANOVA for two groups of adult men and women as follows: hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, diabetes, abdominal obesity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. The dependent variables for the presence of seven chronic diseases regressed with socioeconomic, dietary behavior, and physical activity variables according to Logistic models. The dependent variables for milk intake using predictor variables of socioeconomic, dietary behaviors and physical activity were analyzed according to Logistic models. Finally, the significant socioeconomic, dietary behavior, and physical activity variables in the above model along with milk intake as a control variable or mediator variable regressed with significant chronic diseases according to Logistic models.

Results

Milk intake, socioeconomic status, dietary behaviors, and physical activity were significantly different among the two groups of adult men and women, which were also critical factors to the prevalence of chronic diseases. The dependent variable for prevalence of chronic diseases regressed with significant factors of socioeconomic status, dietary behavior, and physical activity variables according to chronic diseases using the control or mediator variable of milk intake and summarized as follows: For adult men, milk intake controlled the education effect on diabetes partly, alcohol on hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, breakfast on metabolic syndrome, eating out on obesity, and medium physical activity on hypertriglyceridemia. For adult women, household income on hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes, abdominal obesity, education level on hypertension, alcohol drinking, eating out, and walking activity on abdominal obesity, alcohol, breakfast, eating out, walking activity on low HDL-cholesterol, and medium physical activity on hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were partly controlled by milk intake. Other significant socioeconomic status, dietary behavior, and physical activity variables related to prevalence of chronic diseases were fully controlled or mediated by milk intake.

Conclusion

This study shows that milk intake (daily more than 200 g) prevents chronic diseases such as hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: milk intake; prevalence rate; logistic regression; control effect; mediator effect

Figures


Fig. 1
Mediator model of milk intake and prevalence of chronic diseases
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of subject N (%)
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Table 2
Milk, dairy product intake and prevalence of chronic diseases (%)
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Table 3
Logistic regression results of milk, dairy products intake and prevalence of chronic diseases on the sex groups and odds ratio ORs (95% CI)
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Table 4
Logistic regression results of prevalence of diseases on socioeconomic factors, eating behaviors, and physical activity levels
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Table 5
Logistic regression results of milk and dairy products on socioeconomic factors, health & eating behaviors, and activity levels with stepwise selection method
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Table 6
Logistic regression results of prevalence of diseases on socioeconomic factors, eating behaviors, and physical activity levels by milk intake
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Notes

This research was supported by a grant from Hannam University in 2016.

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