Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(2) > 1081486

J Nutr Health. 2017 Apr;50(2):121-132. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Establishment of reference intake of water for Korean adults in 2015
Jae-Hyun Lee,1 and Sun-Hyo Kim2
1Department of Health Convergence, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
2Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-41-850-8307, Email:
Received February 06, 2017; Revised February 21, 2017; Accepted March 24, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This review was performed to establish a reference intake of water for Korean (KDRI-water) adults in 2015 by examining current knowledge of the relationship between water intake and health and the general status of water intake and loss. We expect that this study will be utilized for further refinement of KDRI-water.


Documents were searched using RISS, NDSL, DBPIA, CINAHL, and Pubmed with the keywords ‘water intake, water supply, water ingestion, hydration, dehydration, water balance, and fluid balance’.


Water balance is essential for the maintenance of health. Based on this assumption, numerous studies have been performed to investigate the association of water intake with several diseases such as urolithasis, obesity, diabetes, and cancer as well as other health problems, including constipation, cognition, and fetal weight. Effects of water intake for prevention or relief of these health problems vary. Water is supplied to the body by eating foods and drinking liquids such as plain water and beverages. Metabolic water is another source of water input. Water is lost through urine, skin, respiration, and feces. KDRI-water 2015 was set by adequate intake (AI) based on water intake volume, which was the sum of water intakes from foods and fluids reported by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with extra milk intake of 200 mL. AIs in some age groups were modified considering their estimated energy requirements.


Accurate data of water intake is critically important for the establishment of KDRI-water. Therefore, improvement of systems investigating water intake is required, and more studies on the status of water intake and loss in Korean people are needed for definite KDRI-water establishment.

Keywords: dietary reference intake; water; water intake; water loss; health


Fig. 1
Establishment method of reference intake of water for Korean adults
1) Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea, The Korean Nutrition Society, 20154 2) Park, 198839 3) Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2008~201248 4) It refers to ‘beverage and alcohol’ reported in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~201248 5) Intake of ‘beverage and alcohol’ in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~201248 does not include milk intake, so adds 200 mL of milk intake in order to recommend milk intake.
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Table 1
The relationship between water intake and health
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Table 2
Water intake in healthy adults
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Table 3
Water output in healthy adults
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Table 4
Fluid water intake of adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 ~ 20121)
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Table 5
Calculation of reference intake of water of Korean adults
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