Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(2) > 1081486

J Nutr Health. 2017 Apr;50(2):121-132. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.2.121
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Establishment of reference intake of water for Korean adults in 2015
Jae-Hyun Lee,1 and Sun-Hyo Kim2
1Department of Health Convergence, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
2Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-41-850-8307, Email: shkim@kongju.ac.kr
Received February 06, 2017; Revised February 21, 2017; Accepted March 24, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This review was performed to establish a reference intake of water for Korean (KDRI-water) adults in 2015 by examining current knowledge of the relationship between water intake and health and the general status of water intake and loss. We expect that this study will be utilized for further refinement of KDRI-water.

Methods

Documents were searched using RISS, NDSL, DBPIA, CINAHL, and Pubmed with the keywords ‘water intake, water supply, water ingestion, hydration, dehydration, water balance, and fluid balance’.

Results

Water balance is essential for the maintenance of health. Based on this assumption, numerous studies have been performed to investigate the association of water intake with several diseases such as urolithasis, obesity, diabetes, and cancer as well as other health problems, including constipation, cognition, and fetal weight. Effects of water intake for prevention or relief of these health problems vary. Water is supplied to the body by eating foods and drinking liquids such as plain water and beverages. Metabolic water is another source of water input. Water is lost through urine, skin, respiration, and feces. KDRI-water 2015 was set by adequate intake (AI) based on water intake volume, which was the sum of water intakes from foods and fluids reported by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with extra milk intake of 200 mL. AIs in some age groups were modified considering their estimated energy requirements.

Conclusion

Accurate data of water intake is critically important for the establishment of KDRI-water. Therefore, improvement of systems investigating water intake is required, and more studies on the status of water intake and loss in Korean people are needed for definite KDRI-water establishment.

Keywords: dietary reference intake; water; water intake; water loss; health

Figures


Fig. 1
Establishment method of reference intake of water for Korean adults
1) Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea, The Korean Nutrition Society, 20154 2) Park, 198839 3) Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2008~201248 4) It refers to ‘beverage and alcohol’ reported in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~201248 5) Intake of ‘beverage and alcohol’ in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~201248 does not include milk intake, so adds 200 mL of milk intake in order to recommend milk intake.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
The relationship between water intake and health
Click for larger image


Table 2
Water intake in healthy adults
Click for larger image


Table 3
Water output in healthy adults
Click for larger image


Table 4
Fluid water intake of adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 ~ 20121)
Click for larger image


Table 5
Calculation of reference intake of water of Korean adults
Click for larger image

References
1. Fomon SJ. Body composition of the male reference infant during the first year of life. Pediatrics 1967;40(5):863–870.
2. Jéquier E, Constant F. Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64(2):115–123.
3. Adolph EF. In: Physiological regulations. Lancaster (PA): Jaques Cattell Press; 1943.
4. Ministry of Health and Welfare (KR). The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans 2015. Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2016.
5. Perrier E, Rondeau P, Poupin M, Le Bellego L, Armstrong LE, Lang F, Stookey J, Tack I, Vergne S, Klein A. Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2013;67(9):939–943.
6. Park TS, Kim EK. In: The living nutrition of contemporain. 2nd ed. Paju: Kyomunsa; 2011.
7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water. EFSA J 2010;8(3):1459.
8. Hillyer M, Menon K, Singh R. The effects of dehydration on skill-based performance. Int J Sports Sci 2015;5(3):99–107.
9. Cheuvront SN, Haymes EM. Thermoregulation and marathon running: biological and environmental influences. Sports Med 2001;31(10):743–762.
10. Armstrong LE. Challenges of linking chronic dehydration and fluid consumption to health outcomes. Nutr Rev 2012;70 Suppl 2:S121–S127.
11. Dai M, Zhao A, Liu A, You L, Wang P. Dietary factors and risk of kidney stone: a case-control study in southern China. J Ren Nutr 2013;23(2):e21–e28.
12. Popkin BM, D'Anci KE, Rosenberg IH. Water, hydration, and health. Nutr Rev 2010;68(8):439–458.
13. Manz F, Wentz A. The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases. Nutr Rev 2005;63(6 Pt 2):S2–S5.
14. Davy BM, Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Wilson KL, Davy KP. Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108(7):1236–1239.
15. Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Comber DL, Flack KD, Savla J, Davy KP, Davy BM. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18(2):300–307.
16. Popkin BM, Barclay DV, Nielsen SJ. Water and food consumption patterns of U.S. adults from 1999 to 2001. Obes Res 2005;13(12):2146–2152.
17. Stookey JD, Constant F, Popkin BM, Gardner CD. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16(11):2481–2488.
18. Kant AK, Graubard BI, Atchison EA. Intakes of plain water, mois ture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population--nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2006. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(3):655–663.
19. Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Plain-water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95(6):1454–1460.
20. Roussel R, Fezeu L, Bouby N, Balkau B, Lantieri O, Alhenc-Gelas F, Marre M, Bankir L. D.E.S.I.R. Study Group. Low water intake and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 2011;34(12):2551–2554.
21. Geoffroy-Perez B, Cordier S. Fluid consumption and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a multicenter case-control study. Int J Cancer 2001;93(6):880–887.
22. Altieri A, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Fluid intake and risk of bladder and other cancers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57 Suppl 2:S59–S68.
23. Simons CC, Leurs LJ, Weijenberg MP, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Fluid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Nutr Cancer 2010;62(3):307–321.
24. Arnaud MJ. Mild dehydration: a risk factor of constipation? Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57 Suppl 2:S88–S95.
25. Cuomo R, Grasso R, Sarnelli G, Capuano G, Nicolai E, Nardone G, Pomponi D, Budillon G, Ierardi E. Effects of carbonated water on functional dyspepsia and constipation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;14(9):991–999.
26. Murakami K, Sasaki S, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Hosoi Y, Itabashi M. Freshmen in Dietetic Courses Study II Group. Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(5):616–622.
27. Benton D. Dehydration influences mood and cognition: a plausible hypothesis? Nutrients 2011;3(5):555–573.
28. Wright JM, Hoffman CS, Savitz DA. The relationship between water intake and foetal growth and preterm delivery in a prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10(1):48.
29. Gibson S, Shirreffs SM. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake. Nutr J 2013;12(1):9.
30. Lee KW, Shin D, Song WO. Total water intake from beverages and foods is associated with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. Nutrients 2016;8(10):617.
31. Westerterp KR, Plasqui G, Goris AH. Water loss as a function of energy intake, physical activity and season. Br J Nutr 2005;93(2):199–203.
32. Malisova O, Bountziouka V, Panagiotakos DB, Zampelas A, Kapsokefalou M. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece. J Hum Nutr Diet 2013;26 Suppl 1:90–96.
33. Kim J, Yang YJ. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8(5):580–588.
34. Kim SH. A survey on dietary behaviors and liquid consumptions of university students in Kongju of Chungnam province in Korea. Korean J Nutr 2009;42(4):327–337.
35. Kim IS, Yu HH. Diet qualities by sex and age of adults over thirty years old in Jeon-ju area. Korean J Nutr 2001;34(5):580–596.
36. Guelinckx I, Ferreira-Pêgo C, Moreno LA, Kavouras SA, Gandy J, Martinez H, Bardosono S, Abdollahi M, Nasseri E, Jarosz A, Ma G, Carmuega E, Babio N, Salas-Salvadó J. Intake of water and different beverages in adults across 13 countries. Eur J Nutr 2015;54 Suppl 2:45–55.
37. Kim IS, Ahn HS. Beverage consumption patterns of inhabitants in Seoul. Korean J Nutr 1987;20(4):281–288.
38. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2014: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-2). Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2015.
39. Park YS. In: Effects of dietary factors on urinary sodium excretion and establishing simplifies method to estimate salt intake [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 1988.
40. Guyton AC, Hall JE. In: Textbook of medical physiology. 11th edition. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier Saunders; 2006.
41. Koo JO. In: Effects of dietary protein and calcium on protein and calcium metabolism in Korean women [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 1987.
42. Kim JH. In: Effect of supplemental zinc and dietary phytate on zinc metabolism in young and elderly Korean women using stable isotopes [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 2004.
43. Rhie SG, Lee DT, Kim HN, Kim AJ, Sung CJ. The comparison mineral intakes with serum lipids and minerals in some rural housewives. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 1990;19(5):411–417.
44. Son SM, Park YS, Lim HJ, Kim SB, Jeong YS. Sodium intakes of Korean adults with 24-hour urine analysis and dish frequency questionnaire and comparison of sodium intakes according to the regional area and dish group. Korean J Community Nutr 2007;12(5):545–558.
45. Raman A, Schoeller DA, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Schatzkin A, Harris T, Bauer D, Bingham SA, Everhart JE, Newman AB, Tylavsky FA. Water turnover in 458 American adults 40-79 yr of age. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2004;286(2):F394–F401.
46. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. 1st revision. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society; 2010.
47. Institute of Medicine (US). Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2005.
48. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012)'s Certified [Internet]. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [cited 2014 Feb 13].
49. Koo JO, Lim HS, Yoon JS, Lee AR, Seo JS, Lee JH, Sohn JM. In: Advanced nutrition. Seoul: Powerbook; 2013.