Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(1) > 1081484

Kim, Lee, and Kang: Effects of lymphocyte DNA damage levels in Korean plant food groups and Korean diet regarding to glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms


ABSTRACT Purpose: GST (glutathione S-transferase) M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms are known to affect antioxidant levels. This study was carried out to evaluate genetic susceptibility by measuring the effect of DNA damage reduction in the Korean diet by vegetable food according to GST gene polymorphisms using the ex vivo method with human lymphocytes. Methods: Vegetable foods in the Korean diet based the results of the KNHANES V-2 (2011) were classified into 10 food groups. A total of 84 foods, which constituted more than 1% of the total intake in each food group, were finally designated as a vegetable food in the Korean diet. The Korean diet applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 Kcal/day) suggested by the 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. Ex vivo DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using comet assay. Results: In the Korean food group, the DNA damage protective effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was found to be greater in mutant type and wild-type, respectively. and the DNA damage protective effect according to the combined genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was different depending on the food group. On the other hand, in Korean Diet, the DNA damage protective effect appeared to be larger in GSTM1 wild-type than in mutant type and was found to not be affected by GSTT1 genotype. Conclusion: These results can be used as basic data to demonstrate the superiority of the antioxidant function of Korean dietary patterns and food groups. Furthermore, it may be a starting point to begin research on customized antioxidant nutrition according to individual genes.


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Fig. 1.
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean plant food groups at 50 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTM1 genotype. ∗p < 0.05, t-test. Total: mixture of 10 Korean plant food groups.
Fig. 2.
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean plant food groups at 50 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTT1 genotype. ∗ p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001, t-test. Total: mixture of 10 Korean plant food groups.
Fig. 3.
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean diet at 250 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype. ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗∗p < 0.001. NS: not significant, t-test
Fig. 4.
The effect of Korean diet pre-treatment on H2O2 -induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes, classified according to GST genotype. Different letters are significantly different among GST genotypes by Duncan's multiple range test.
Table 1.
Intake of plant foods and oils in the Korean diet (KNHANES V-2, 2011)
Food group Intake2) Food group Intake
(plant foods and oils)1) (g/day) (plant foods and oils) (g/day)
Cereals   Kimchi  
Rice 180.86 Chinese cabbage kimchi 62.98
Rice cake 15.14 Cubed radish kimchi 8.54
Noodles 9.58 Young leafy radish kimchi 5.98
Glutinous rice 10.17 Dong chi mi 5.42
Barley 6.8 Small radish kimchi 6.02
Brown rice 6.6 Na bak kimchi 5.7
Corn 5.53 Watery young leafy radish kimchi 2.95
Flour 5.02 Cucumber kimchi 1.64
Buckwheat noddles 3.73 Beak kimchi 1.24
Noodle soup 3.41 Green onions kimchi 1.1
Total 246.84 Total 101.57
Potatoes   Mushroom  
Potato 20.9 Oyster mushrooms 1.33
Sweet potato 13.03 Pine mushrooms 1.36
Chinese noodle 1.21 Oak mushrooms 1.25
Starch 0.71 Winter mushrooms 0.52
Arrow roots 0.58 White mushrooms 0.49
Total 36.43 Phellinus linteus 0.23
Fruits   Total 5.18
Apples 31.12 Legumes  
Citrus fruits 34.73 Tofu 21.26
Pears 16.56 Soybean milk 10.91
Water melons 16.49 Soybean 3.8
Grapes 12.63 Kidney beans 0.66
Oranges 8.20 Red beans 0.6
Persimmons 18.94 Total 37.23
Musk melons 8.13 Oils  
Banana 6.14 Soybean oil 3.49
Strawberries 5.21 Sesame seed oil 1.47
Peaches 4.87 Wild sesame seed oil 0.21
Japanese apricots 4.61 Rape seed oil 0.27
Kiwies 2.16 Total 5.44
Total 169.79 Nuts  
Vegetables   Chestnuts 0.8
Onions 23.68 Sesame 0.65
Red peppers 21.81 Peanuts 0.92
Tomatoes 20.33 Perilla seeds 0.36
Cucumbers 14.93 Walnuts 0.24
Green onions 11.01 Ginko nuts 0.08
Chinese cabbage 10.4 Pine nuts 0.06
Squash 9.78 Total 3.11
Radish leaves 9.14 Seaweeds  
Soybean sprouts 8.83 Sea mustard 7.06
Radishes 7.06 Sea tangle 1.91
Spinach 6.64 Laver 1.38
Lettuce 6.57 Green laver 0.34
Carrots 5.43 Total 10.69
Sesame leaf 4.7    
Garlic 4.06    
Cabbage 3.45    
Leeks 2.67    
Eggplants 2.45    
Bracken 2.44    
Chwinamuls 2.18    
Total 177.56    

1) Individual items that comprised more than 1% of the total dietary intake by the group selected in this study are representative of the plant foods commonly consumed in the Korean diet.

2) g of edible portion/day/person

Table 2.
Normal dietary pattern of Korean diet (a week_2,000 kcal/day)1)
  Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
  KD2)1 KD 2 KD 3 KD 4 KD 5 KD 6 KD 7
Breakfast Sorghum rice Spinach soup Cutlassfish (boiled down in soy sauce) Bellflower salad Stir-fried Korean-leek Rice with beans Beef radish soup Boiled chicken Laver Cooked crown daisy Mixed cereals rice Sea mustard soup Steamed egg Cooked spinach Cooked mungbean sprout Rice with beans Soybean soup Grilled Spanish mackerel Stir-fried oyster mushrooms Radish salsd Toasted bread Grilled ham Vegetable stick Milk (200 ml) Rice with red beans Soybean paste soup with cabbage Grilled Mackerel Cooked squash Cooked mungbean sprout Rice with beans Radish soup Grilled sole (flatfish) Cooked leaf beet Japchae
Lunch Rice Dried Pollack soup Cooked soybean Grilled tofu Chinese cabbage kimchi Rice Yukgaejang Soft tofu Cooked sweet potato stem Green laver salad Rice with raw fish Soybean paste soup with winter mushrooms Rakkyo Rice Soybean paste soup with dried radish leaves Bulgogi Lettuce Cucumber salad Soybean paste soup with chinese cabbage Hotstone pot Bibim-bap Fried eggs Cucumber kimchi Rice Seolleongtang Cooked dried radish leaves Cubed radish kimchi Noodle soup with clams Fried fish paste Small radish kimchi
Dinner Barley rice Soybean paste soup with chinese cabbage Fried spicy pork Leafy vegetables Green onions salad Brown & glutinous rice Curled mallow soup Grilled yellow croaker Squash pancake Chinese cabbage kimchi Rice with beans Kimchi stew Cooked cabbage Grilled saury Cooked bokchoy Mixed cereals rice Soft tofu stew Cooked chwinamul Na bak kimchi Brown & glutinous rice Pollack stew Cooked spinach Grilled deodeok Dotorimuk (Acorn jelly salad) Mixed cereals rice Soybean paste stew with tofu Pyeonyuk (steamed pork) Fried Bellflower Water parsley salad Brown & glutinous rice Beef and mushroom stew Stir-fried anchovy Cooked eggplant
Snack Milk (200 ml) Apple (100 g) Citrus fruit (100 g) Injeolmi (50 g) Milk (200 ml) Kiwi (100 g) Persimmon (100 g) Jeolpyeon (50 g) Liquid yogurt (145 ml) Strawberry (200 g) Citrus fruit (100 g) Sweet potato (50 g) Yoghurt (110 ml) Apple (100 g) Pear (100 g) Potato (130 g) Citrus fruit (100 g) Banana (100 g) Milk (200 ml) Orange (200 g) Milk (200 ml) Strawberry (200 g) Persimmon (100 g)

1) Reference: 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans first revision (The Korean Nutrition Society) 2) KD: Korean diet

Table 3.
Primer sequences used in the PCR reactions
Primer Sequences (5' ——-3')
GSTM1-forw. gaa ctc cct gaa aag cta aag c
GSTM1-rev. gtt ggg ctc aaa tat acg gtg g
GSTT1-forw. ttc ctt act ggt cct cac act tc
GSTT1-rev. tca ccg gat cat ggc cag ca
β-Globin-forw. caa ctt cat cca cgt tca cc
β-Globin-rev. gaa gag cca agg aca ggt ac
Table 4.
The effect of Korean plant food group pre-treatment on H2O2 -induced DNA damages in human lymphocytes, classified according to GST genotype1)
Food Groups GST genotypes
Group 1 (N = 4) GSTM1+/ GSTT1+ Group 2 (N = 5) GSTM1+/ GSTT1- Group 3 (N = 4) GSTM1- /GSTT1+ Group 4 (N = 4) GSTM1-/ GSTT1-
Positive control (H2O2)2) 100 100 100 100
DNA in tail (%)        
 Potatoes 41.8 ± 3.0ab3) 39.7 ± 1.7ab 38.1 ± 2.1a 45.9 ± 2.0b
 Nuts 32.3 ± 1.3a 34.2 ± 1.9a 30.3 ± 1.1a 39.4 ± 1.2b
 Cereals 47.3 ± 2.7NS4) 45.7 ± 1.5 43.6 ± 2.2 46.6 ± 1.7
 Fruits 17.9 ± 1.0a 24.6 ± 1.9b 20.5 ± 1.4ab 30.0 ± 1.4c
 Kimchi 25.7 ± 1.2a 32.1 ± 1.4b 25.9 ± 1.7a 34.6 ± 1.2b
 Legumes 38.4 ± 1.8a 38.5 ± 1.4a 36.0 ± 2.2a 45.4 ± 1.2ab
 Mushroom 14.4 ± 1.1a 20.8 ± 1.5b 13.0 ± 1.0a 24.8 ± 1.0c
 Oils 50.8 ± 3.3NS 50.5 ± 2.5 45.9 ± 2.8 48.4 ± 1.9
 Vegetables 15.8 ± 0.4a 23.8 ± 1.6b 18.8 ± 1.2a 28.5 ± 1.1c
 Seaweeds 23.5 ± 1.2a 27.2 ± 1.4ab 25.5 ± 2.0ab 29.4 ± 1.6b
Total5) 36.9 ± 1.3a 33.6 ± 2.4a 31.3 ± 2.1a 43.3 ± 1.1b
Tail moment (%)        
 Potatoes 24.7 ± 1.9NS 23.8 ± 1.23) 20.8 ± 2.0 23.0 ± 0.8
 Nuts 19.2 ± 1.0bc 18.1 ± 0.8ab 15.6 ± 1.4a 21.5 ± 0.4c
 Cereals 30.5 ± 2.4b 26.3 ± 1.4ab 23.0 ± 2.4a 25.6 ± 0.6ab
 Fruits 11.1 ± 0.5a 12.7 ± 0.5a 11.2 ± 1.0ab 14.7 ± 0.4b
 Kimchi 16.4 ± 0.9ab 17.5 ± 0.8ab 15.0 ± 1.2a 19.0 ± 1.4b
 Legumes 23.4 ± 1.7b 21.9 ± 1.0ab 19.0 ± 1.7a 23.1 ± 0.8b
 Mushroom 8.3 ± 0.3b 9.6 ± 0.4b 6.3 ± 0.7a 11.8 ± 0.3c
 Oils 28.8 ± 2.3ab 30.3 ± 1.4b 23.4 ± 3.2a 26.71.1ab
 Vegetables 10.1 ± 0.5a 12.4 ± 0.4b 9.0 ± 0.6a 13.0 ± 0.3b
 Seaweeds 13.7 ± 0.8a 15.1 ± 0.5ab 13.7 ± 1.1a 16.3 ± 0.4b
Total 20.7 ± 1.3ab 19.3 ± 0.9ab 17.7 ± 1.6a 22.5 ± 0.6b
Tail length (%)        
 Potatoes 35.0 ± 1.0b 28.1 ± 1.4a 29.4 ± 2.4a 29.7 ± 1.4a
 Nuts 29.6 ± 1.5b 23.0 ± 1.5a 22.7 ± 2.1a 29.6 ± 0.6b
 Cereals 40.7 ± 2.1b 30.1 ± 1.9a 30.7 ± 2.7a 33.7 ± 0.9a
 Fruits 22.9 ± 1.3b 18.7 ± 0.8a 17.9 ± 1.0a 20.9 ± 1.5ab
 Kimchi 29.9 ± 0.7c 23.2 ± 1.3a 25.0 ± 1.9ab 28.2 ± 1.2bc
 Legumes 34.3 ± 1.0b 27.4 ± 1.2a 26.6 ± 1.7a 29.9 ± 1.4a
 Mushroom 15.4 ± 1.2a 13.8 ± 0.4a 12.4 ± 1.4a 19.0 ± 1.2b
 Oils 36.1 ± 1.3ab 35.2 ± 1.6ab 30.3 ± 3.5a 37.3 ± 0.9b
 Vegetables 21.7 ± 1.4b 17.6 ± 1.2a 15.9 ± 1.2a 21.2 ± 1.2b
 Seaweeds 23.9 ± 1.2ab 21.2 ± 0.8a 21.0 ± 1.5a 25.0 ± 1.1b
Total 28.1 ± 1.5ab 24.8 ± 1.0a 26.2 ± 1.9ab 29.6 ± 1.4b

1) All values are Relative score (%) for positive control (means ± SE)

2) Positive control (H2O2): The maximum amount of DNA damage

3) Different letters are significantly different among GST genotypes by Duncan's multiple range test.

4) NS: not significant 5) Total: mixture of 10 Korean plant food groups

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