Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(1) > 1081484

J Nutr Health. 2017 Feb;50(1):10-24. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effects of lymphocyte DNA damage levels in Korean plant food groups and Korean diet regarding to glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms
Hyun-A Kim, Min-Young Lee and Myung-Hee Kang
Department of Food & Nutrition, Daedeok Valley Campus, Hannam University, Daejeon 34054, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-629-8791, Email:
Received January 13, 2017; Revised February 06, 2017; Accepted February 10, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



GST (glutathione S-transferase) M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms are known to affect antioxidant levels. This study was carried out to evaluate genetic susceptibility by measuring the effect of DNA damage reduction in the Korean diet by vegetable food according to GST gene polymorphisms using the ex vivo method with human lymphocytes.


Vegetable foods in the Korean diet based the results of the KNHANES V-2 (2011) were classified into 10 food groups. A total of 84 foods, which constituted more than 1% of the total intake in each food group, were finally designated as a vegetable food in the Korean diet. The Korean diet applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 Kcal/day) suggested by the 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. Ex vivo DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using comet assay.


In the Korean food group, the DNA damage protective effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was found to be greater in mutant type and wild-type, respectively. and the DNA damage protective effect according to the combined genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was different depending on the food group. On the other hand, in Korean Diet, the DNA damage protective effect appeared to be larger in GSTM1 wild-type than in mutant type and was found to not be affected by GSTT1 genotype.


These results can be used as basic data to demonstrate the superiority of the antioxidant function of Korean dietary patterns and food groups. Furthermore, it may be a starting point to begin research on customized antioxidant nutrition according to individual genes.

Keywords: DNA damage; GST polymorphism; Korean plant food groups; Korean Diet; Comet assay


Fig. 1
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean plant food groups at 50 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTM1 genotype. *p < 0.05, t-test. Total: mixture of 10 Korean plant food groups.
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Fig. 2
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean plant food groups at 50 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTT1 genotype. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, t-test. Total: mixture of 10 Korean plant food groups.
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Fig. 3
Relative score of lymphocyte DNA damage of Korean diet at 250 µg/ml concentration according to the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001. NS: not significant, t-test
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Fig. 4
The effect of Korean diet pre-treatment on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes, classified according to GST genotype. Different letters are significantly different among GST genotypes by Duncan's multiple range test.
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Table 1
Intake of plant foods and oils in the Korean diet (KNHANES V-2, 2011)
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Table 2
Normal dietary pattern of Korean diet (a week_2,000 kcal/day)1)
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Table 3
Primer sequences used in the PCR reactions
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Table 4
The effect of Korean plant food group pre-treatment on H2O2-induced DNA damages in human lymphocytes, classified according to GST genotype1)
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