Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(1) > 1081483

J Nutr Health. 2017 Feb;50(1):1-9. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2017.50.1.1
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Comparison of antioxidant activity and prevention of lymphocyte DNA damage by fruit and vegetable juices marketed in Korea
Miran Cho, Hye-Jin Lee, Myung-Hee Kang and Hyesun Min
Department of Food & Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34124, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-629-8792, Email: hsmin@hnu.kr
Received November 25, 2016; Revised December 22, 2016; Accepted January 16, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

Fruit and vegetable juices are known to be rich sources of antioxidants, which have beneficial effects on diseases caused by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the antioxidant activities of fruit and vegetable juices marketed in Korea.

Methods

We analyzed four fruit juices, two vegetable juices, two yellow-green juices, and six mixed vegetable juices. Antioxidant activities were analyzed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Protective effects against DNA damage were determined using an ex vivo comet assay with human lymphocytes.

Results

DPPH radical scavenging activities were in the following order: blueberry juice > mixed vegetable C juice > kale juice > mixed vegetable P juice > grape juice. ABTS radical scavenging activities were in the following order: blueberry juice > mixed vegetable C juice > grape juice > mixed vegetable P juice > kale juice. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities as assessed by ORAC assay were in the following order: blueberry juice > kale juice > mixed vegetable C juice > grape juice. Grape or blueberry juice showed strong abilities to prevent DNA damage in lymphocytes, and the difference between them was not significant according to the GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype.

Conclusion

Antioxidant activities of fruit and vegetable juices and ex vivo DNA protective activity increased in the order of blueberry juice, grape juice, and kale juice, although the rankings were slightly different. Therefore, these juices rich in polyphenols and flavonoids deserve more attention for their high antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: fruit juice; vegetable juice; blueberry juice; antioxidant activity; comet assay

Figures


Fig. 1
Comparison of ORAC values of ethanol extracts of commercial vegetable and fruit juices in Korea. Each bar represents the mean value with standard deviation.
Click for larger image


Fig. 2
The ex vivo effects of vitamin C, blueberry juice, mixed vegetable C juice, kale juice, and grape juice on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Each bar represents the mean value with standard deviation. Each DNA damage (%) was calculated using tail moment by comparing with positive control. Vitamin C was used as a reference pure compound. N; negative control, P; positive control
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Primer sequences used in the PCR reaction for GST genotyping
Click for larger image


Table 2
Antioxidant capacity of commercial fruit and vegetable juices in Korea1)
Click for larger image


Table 3
Levels of lymphocyte DNA damage expressed as TD, TL, TM of vitamin C, blueberry, mixed vegetable C, kale, and grape juice according to GSTM1 and T1 polymorphism
Click for larger image

Notes

This research was supported by 2015 Hannam University Research Funds.

References
1. Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr 2012;3(4):506–516.
2. Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 1996;275(6):447–451.
3. Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Müller MJ, Oberritter H, Schulze M, Stehle P, Watzl B. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr 2012;51(6):637–663.
4. Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 2004;3:5.
5. Thomasset S, Berry DP, Cai H, West K, Marczylo TH, Marsden D, Brown K, Dennison A, Garcea G, Miller A, Hemingway D, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Pilot study of oral anthocyanins for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009;2(7):625–633.
6. Lee HR, Jung BR, Park JY, Hwang IW, Kim SK, Choi JU, Lee SH, Chung SK. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of grape juice products in the Korean market. Korean J Food Preserv 2008;15(3):445–449.
7. Jeong SM, Son MH, Lee SH. A survey on contents of phenolic compounds of market fruit and vegetables juices. J Basic Sci 2003;18:117–123.
8. Blumberg JB, Vita JA, Chen CY. Concord grape juice polyphenols and cardiovascular risk factors: dose-response relationships. Nutrients 2015;7(12):10032–10052.
9. Lichtenthäler R, Marx F. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of common European fruit and vegetable juices. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(1):103–110.
10. Lee BH, Kim SY, Cho CH, Chung DK, Chun OK, Kim DO. Estimation of daily per capita intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacities from fruit and vegetable juices in the Korean diet based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2011;43(4):475–482.
11. Chung HJ. Comparison of physicochemical properties and physiological activities of commercial fruit juices. Korean J Food Preserv 2012;19(5):712–719.
12. Lee MH, Kim MS, Shin HG, Sohn HY. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antithrombin activity of domestic fruit and vegetable juice. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 2011;39(2):146–152.
13. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(6):1841–1856.
14. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(10):4290–4302.
15. Chen HM, Muramoto K, Yamauchi F, Fujimoto K, Nokihara K. Antioxidative properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from peptide fragments found in the digests of a soybean protein. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46(1):49–53.
16. Ghiselli A, Serafini M, Maiani G, Azzini E, Ferro-Luzzi A. A fluorescence-based method for measuring total plasma antioxidant capability. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18(1):29–36.
17. Aruoma OI, Halliwell B, Williamson G. In vitro methods for characterizing potential prooxidant and antioxidant actions of nonnutritive substances in plant foods. In: Aruoma OI, Cuppet SL, editors. Antioxidant Methodology: In Vivo and In Vitro Concepts. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 1997. pp. 173-184.
18. Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 1988;175(1):184–191.
19. Park EJ, Kang MH. Application of the alkaline comet assay for detecting oxidative DNA damage in human biomonitoring. Korean J Nutr 2002;35(2):213–222.
20. Strange RC, Spiteri MA, Ramachandran S, Fryer AA. Glutathione-S-transferase family of enzymes. Mutat Res 2001;482(1-2):21–26.
21. Bell DA, Taylor JA, Paulson DF, Robertson CN, Mohler JL, Lucier GW. Genetic risk and carcinogen exposure: a common inherited defect of the carcinogen-metabolism gene glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) that increases susceptibility to bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85(14):1159–1164.
22. Pemble S, Schroeder KR, Spencer SR, Meyer DJ, Hallier E, Bolt HM, Ketterer B, Taylor JB. Human glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic polymorphism. Biochem J 1994;300(Pt 1):271–276.
23. Lemańska K, Szymusiak H, Tyrakowska B, Zieliński R, Soffers AE, Rietjens IM. The influence of pH on antioxidant properties and the mechanism of antioxidant action of hydroxyflavones. Free Radic Biol Med 2001;31(7):869–881.
24. Kim GD, Lee YS, Cho JY, Lee YH, Choi KJ, Lee Y, Han TH, Lee SH, Park KH, Moon JH. Comparison of the content of bioactive substances and the inhibitory effects against rat plasma oxidation of conventional and organic hot peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(23):12300–12306.
25. Jeong CH, Choi SG, Heo HJ. Analysis of nutritional compositions and antioxidative activities of Korean commercial blueberry and raspberry. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37(11):1375–1381.
26. Seeram NP, Aviram M, Zhang Y, Henning SM, Feng L, Dreher M, Heber D. Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56(4):1415–1422.
27. Vanzani P, Rossetto M, De Marco V, Rigo A, Scarpa M. Efficiency and capacity of antioxidant rich foods in trapping peroxyl radicals: a full evaluation of radical scavenging activity. Food Res Int 2011;44(1):269–275.
28. Park YK, Kim JS, Kang MH. Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):145–147.
29. Park YK, Lee SH, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MH. Changes in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1171(1):385–390.
30. Park YK, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MH. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans. Mutat Res 2003;529(1-2):77–86.
31. Jeon EJ, Kim JS, Park YK, Kim TS, Kang MH. Protective effect of yellow-green vegetable juices on DNA damage in Chinese hamster lung cell using comet assay. Korean J Nutr 2003;36(1):24–31.
32. Kim HY, Park YK, Kim TS, Kang MH. The effect of green vegetable drink supplementation on cellular DNA damage and antioxidant status of Korean smokers. Korean J Nutr 2006;39(1):18–27.
33. Lee SM, Park KY, Rhee SH. Antimutagenic effect and active compound analysis of kale juice in salmonella assay system. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1997;26(5):965–971.
34. Chung SY, Kim HW, Yoon S. Analysis of antioxidant nutrients in green yellow vegetable juice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 1999;31(4):880–886.
35. Chung SY, Kim NK, Yoon S. Nitrite scavenging effect of methanol fraction obtained from green yellow vegetable juices. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1999;28(2):342–347.