Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.50(1) > 1081483

J Nutr Health. 2017 Feb;50(1):1-9. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2017.
© 2017 The Korean Nutrition Society
Comparison of antioxidant activity and prevention of lymphocyte DNA damage by fruit and vegetable juices marketed in Korea
Miran Cho, Hye-Jin Lee, Myung-Hee Kang and Hyesun Min
Department of Food & Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34124, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-629-8792, Email:
Received November 25, 2016; Revised December 22, 2016; Accepted January 16, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Fruit and vegetable juices are known to be rich sources of antioxidants, which have beneficial effects on diseases caused by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the antioxidant activities of fruit and vegetable juices marketed in Korea.


We analyzed four fruit juices, two vegetable juices, two yellow-green juices, and six mixed vegetable juices. Antioxidant activities were analyzed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Protective effects against DNA damage were determined using an ex vivo comet assay with human lymphocytes.


DPPH radical scavenging activities were in the following order: blueberry juice > mixed vegetable C juice > kale juice > mixed vegetable P juice > grape juice. ABTS radical scavenging activities were in the following order: blueberry juice > mixed vegetable C juice > grape juice > mixed vegetable P juice > kale juice. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities as assessed by ORAC assay were in the following order: blueberry juice > kale juice > mixed vegetable C juice > grape juice. Grape or blueberry juice showed strong abilities to prevent DNA damage in lymphocytes, and the difference between them was not significant according to the GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype.


Antioxidant activities of fruit and vegetable juices and ex vivo DNA protective activity increased in the order of blueberry juice, grape juice, and kale juice, although the rankings were slightly different. Therefore, these juices rich in polyphenols and flavonoids deserve more attention for their high antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: fruit juice; vegetable juice; blueberry juice; antioxidant activity; comet assay


Fig. 1
Comparison of ORAC values of ethanol extracts of commercial vegetable and fruit juices in Korea. Each bar represents the mean value with standard deviation.
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Fig. 2
The ex vivo effects of vitamin C, blueberry juice, mixed vegetable C juice, kale juice, and grape juice on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Each bar represents the mean value with standard deviation. Each DNA damage (%) was calculated using tail moment by comparing with positive control. Vitamin C was used as a reference pure compound. N; negative control, P; positive control
Click for larger image


Table 1
Primer sequences used in the PCR reaction for GST genotyping
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Table 2
Antioxidant capacity of commercial fruit and vegetable juices in Korea1)
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Table 3
Levels of lymphocyte DNA damage expressed as TD, TL, TM of vitamin C, blueberry, mixed vegetable C, kale, and grape juice according to GSTM1 and T1 polymorphism
Click for larger image


This research was supported by 2015 Hannam University Research Funds.

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