Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(2) > 1081477

J Nutr Health. 2016 Apr;49(2):63-71. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2016.
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Dietary effect of green tea extract on epidermal levels of skin pH related factors, lactate dehydrogenase protein expression and activity in UV-irradiated hairless mice
Bomin Lee,1 Jongyei Kim,1 Jaesung Hwang,2 and Yunhi Cho1
1Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.
2Institute of Life Sciences & Resources, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-31-201-3817, Email:
Received December 17, 2015; Revised March 23, 2016; Accepted March 25, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Skin pH, an indicator of skin health, is maintained by various organic factors, which include lactate, free amino acid (FAA), and free fatty acid (FFA). As skin ages or with illness, skin pH becomes less acidic, and functional food has been developed to maintain the acidic pH of skin. In this study, we determined the dietary effect of green tea extract (GTE) on skin pH of photo-aged mice, as measured by epidermal levels of lactate, FAA, and FFA. The protein expression and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an enzyme of pyruvate reduction for lactate generation, was further determined.


Albino hairless mice were fed a control diet (group UV+) or a diet with 1% GTE (group GTE) in parallel with UV irradiation for 10 weeks. A normal control group was fed a control diet without UV irradiation for 10 weeks (group UV-).


Skin pH was higher (less acidic) in group UV+ than in group UV-. In parallel, epidermal levels of lactate and FFA, as well as of LDH protein expression and activity, were reduced in group UV+. Dietary supplementation of GTE (group GTE) reduced skin pH to similar to the level of group UV-, and inversely increased epidermal levels of lactate, LDH protein expression and activity, but not of FFA. Although epidermal levels of FAA were similar in groups UV- and UV+, it was increased in group GTE to a level higher than in group UV-. In further analysis of major FFA, epidermal levels of palmitic acid [16:0], oleic acid [18:1(n-9)], and linoleic acid [18:2(n-6), but not of stearic acid [18:0] in group GTE were similar to or lower than those in group UV+.


Dietary GTE normalized skin pH with increased levels of lactate and FAA, as well as with increased protein expression and activity of LDH in the epidermis of UVB irradiated hairless mice.

Keywords: green tea extract; skin pH related factors; lactate dehydrogenase; ultraviolet irradiation; hairless mice


Fig. 1
Effect of UV irradiation and dietary green tea extract on skin pH. Groups UV- and UV, hairless mice fed a control diet without (group UV-) or with UV irradiation (group UV+) for 10 weeks; Group GTE, hairless mice fed a diet containing 1.0% green tea extract (GTE) in parallel with UV irradiation for 10 weeks. Values are mean ± SEM (n = 5). Values without a common letter are significantly different (p < 0.05) using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test.
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Fig. 2
Effect of UV irradiation and dietary green tea extract on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) protein expression and activity in the epidermis of mice. Groups UV- and UV+, hairless mice fed a control diet without (group UV-) or with UV irradiation (group UV+) for 10 weeks; Group GTE, hairless mice fed a diet containing 1.0% green tea extract (GTE) in parallel with UV irradiation for 10 weeks. (A) Representative expressions of LDH and actin in the epidermis of groups. (B) Signal intensities from multiple experiments of A were quantified and the integrated areas were normalized to the corresponding value of actin (the loading control). Values are mean ± SEM (n = 5). (C) The activity of LDH was determined in the epidermis of group by LDH activity colorimetric assay kit based on NADH generation in epidermis of groups. Values are mean ± SEM (n = 5). Values without a common letter are significantly different (p < 0.05) using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test.
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Table 1
Diet composition and UV irradiation of experimental groups (g/kg)
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Table 2
Effect of UV irradiation and dietary green tea extract on epidermal levels of lactate, total free amino acids and total free fatty acids
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Table 3
Effect of UV irradiation and dietary green tea extract on epidermal levels of major free fatty acids
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This study was supported by a grant of the Korean Health Technology R & D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant No. HN13C0076).

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