Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(5) > 1081458

J Nutr Health. 2016 Oct;49(5):347-357. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2016.49.5.347
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Bone mineral density and nutritional state according to milk consumption in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee: Using the 2008~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sun-Hyoung Ryu,1 and Yoon Suk Suh2
1Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.
2Graduate School of Education, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-821-8534, Email: yssuh@cnu.ac.kr
Received September 12, 2016; Revised September 18, 2016; Accepted September 28, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated bone mineral density and nutritional state according to consumption of milk in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee.

Methods

Using the 2008~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey data, a total of 1,373 postmenopausal females aged 50 yrs and over were analyzed after excluding those with diseases related to bone health. According to coffee and/or milk consumption, subjects were divided into four groups: coffee only, both coffee & milk, milk only, and none of the above. All data were processed after application of weighted values and adjustment of age, body mass index, physical activity, drinking, and smoking using a general linear model. For analysis of nutrient intake and bone density, data were additionally adjusted by total energy and calcium intake.

Results

The coffee & milk group had more subjects younger than 65 yrs and higher education, urban residents, and higher income than any other group. The coffee only group showed somewhat similar characteristics as the none of the above group, which showed the highest percentage of subjects older than 65 and in a lower education and socio-economic state. Body weight, height, body mass index, and lean mass were the highest in coffee & milk group and lowest in the none of the above group. On the other hand, the milk only group showed the lowest values for body mass index and waist circumference, whereas percent body fat did not show any difference among the groups. The coffee and milk group showed the highest bone mineral density in the total femur and lumbar spine as well as the highest nutritional state and most food group intakes, followed by the milk only group, coffee only group, and none of the above group. In the assessment of osteoporosis based on T-score of bone mineral density, although not significant, the coffee and milk group and milk only group, which showed a better nutritional state, included more subjects with a normal bone density, whereas the none of the above group included more subjects with osteoporosis than any other group.

Conclusion

Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women might not be affected by coffee drinking if their diets are accompanied by balanced food and nutrient intake including milk.

Keywords: postmenopausal women; bone mineral density; T-score; coffee and milk intake; nutritional state

Tables


Table 1
General and lifestyle characteristics of the subjects by consumption of coffee or milk
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Table 2
Comparison of bone mineral density of total femur, femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects by consumption of coffee or milk1)
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Table 3
Distribution of normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis among the subjects assessed by T-score according to the consumption of coffee or milk1)
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Table 4
Anthropometric and blood biochemical indices of the subjects by consumption of coffee or milk
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Table 5
Weekly consumption frequency of food group by consumption of coffee or milk of the subjects1)
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Table 6
Daily nutrients intake, macronutrient energy ratio, nutrient adequacy ratio and mean adequacy ratio of the subjects by consumption of coffee or milk1)
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