Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(5) > 1081455

Kim, Lee, Youn, and Chang: Food and nutrient intake status of Korean elderly by degree of cognitive function



This study was conducted to examine the relationship among cognitive function, nutrition screening initiative (NSI) score, and food intake status.


A total of 409 subjects aged over 60 years were recruited from the Yongin dementia prevention and control center. Mini Mental State Examination Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) method was used to assess the cognitive function of the subjects. Information on health related behaviors and food intake was collected by face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaires included the NSI DETERMINE checklist, food intake sheets by 24 hr recall method and by semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire.


Subjects were divided into low cognitive or normal groups according to the MMSE-DS result. The prevalence of low cognitive function in the subjects was 25.7%. The low cognitive group exercised less and had higher nutritional health risk than the normal group. The low cognitive group had lower consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acid and higher tendency of thiamin, riboflavin, and iron deficiency. The low cognitive group had less frequency of eating mackerel, pepper, tangerine, and watermelon and higher frequency of eating white rice and cookies than the normal group.


The results of this study imply that the cognitive function of elderly is related to exercise behavior, nutritional health risk, and food and nutrient intake status.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General characteristics of subjects


1) Proportion or mean of each variable was tested by using the χ2-test or student's t-test. 2) Mean ± SE 3) n (%)

Table 2

NSI (nutrition screening initiative) DETERMINE checklist score


1) Mean ± SE 2) p-value from generalized linear model adjusted by age and gender 3) p-value from χ2-test

Table 3

Nutrient intake status by 24 hr food record


1) Mean ± SE 2) p-value from generalized linear model adjusted by age and gender 3) % EER: % estimated energy requirement

Table 4

Number (%) of subjects consuming less than the EAR or AI intake by MMSE groups


1) Number of subjects consuming less than the EAR or AI (%) 2) p-value from χ2-test

Table 5

Intake of food items per day by food frequency questionnaire (Times/day)


1) Mean ± SE 2) p-value from generalized linear model adjusted by age and gender 3) including breads, rice cakes, and instant noddle 4) including beans, tofu/bean curd, and soybean milk 5) including potatoes and sweet potatoes 6) including pork, beef, chicken, and ham and sausage 7) including anchovy, yellow croaker, salt-fermented fishes, fish paste, alaska pollack/dongtae, tuna, shellfishes, and common squid 8) including radish, cucumber, spinach, tomato, carrots, pumkin, cabbage, and radish leaves 9) including banana, muskmelon, persimmon/dried persimmon, strawberry, grape, orange, pear, and peach 10) including milk, yogurt, and ice cream 11) including coffee (mix), green tea, and carbonated beverage 12) including soju (distilled liquor), makgeolli (Korean turbid rice liquor), and beer 13) including fried Food, pizza, and hamburger


This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning & Evaluation for Technology (IPET)'s Globalization of Korean Foods Project.


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