Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(3) > 1081436

J Nutr Health. 2016 Jun;49(3):144-152. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2016.
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of morning bread fortified citrus peels powders and its evaluation of biological activity by human trial
Ha-Neul Lee,1,2 Tae-Sun Park,2,3 Ok-Kyeong Yu,1 Moon-Sun Byun,1 and Youn-Soo Cha1,2
1Department of Obesity Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 66414, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Chonbuk National University General Graduate School, Jeonju 66414, Korea.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 66414, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-63-270-3822, Email:
Received March 31, 2016; Revised April 18, 2016; Accepted May 13, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study was conducted in order to develop morning bread using powdered citrus peels and to examine the effect of its several biological activities for 12 weeks in overweight adults (BMI ≧ 23) living in dormitories of Chonbuk National University.


Control bread was prepared using the same formula except for replacing the wheat flour with 3% citrus peel powder. Subjects were classified according to two groups: Intake group of 3% citrus peel powder fortified morning bread (n = 30) and general morning bread (n = 30).


The results of our study showed no significant effects of citrus peel powdered morning bread on anthropometric indices and biochemical characteristics among overweight adults. Despite the slight reduction in total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, GOT, and GPT (p < 0.05), no significant differences in changes of these values were observed between the two groups.


The short duration of our intervention might have resulted in the lack of any significant effect. Therefore, conduct of further studies with longer duration is warranted in order that the results from this study can be utilized as a basis for the development of food products with citrus peel powder.

Keywords: morning bread; citrus peels powder; breakfast; anti-obesity; coronary artery disease


Fig. 1
Experimental design
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Fig. 2
Flow chart for the study subjects
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Table 1
Sensory evaluation of morning bread treated with citrus peels powders after manufacturing
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Table 2
Proximate compositions of GB and 3% CPB (23.3 g)
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Table 3
The result of measurements of the 3% citrus peels powders fortified morning bread's texture, chromaticity, pH and sugar contents
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Table 4
General characteristics of subjects
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Table 5
Changes in anthropometric characteristics
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Table 6
Changes in biochemical characteristics
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Table 7
Approximate nutrient composition of GB, 3% CPB and soy milk
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Table 8
Energy and nutrient intake of the subjects during the study
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