Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(6) > 1081422

J Nutr Health. 2015 Dec;48(6):507-518. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2015.48.6.507
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
Flavonoid intake according to food security in Korean adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2012
Shinyoung Jun,1 Eunju Hong,2 and Hyojee Joung1,3
1Division of Public Health Nutrition, Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Department of Economics and Finance, Hanyang Cyber University, Seoul 04763, Korea.
3Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2781, Email: hjjoung@snu.ac.kr
Received May 13, 2015; Revised July 06, 2015; Accepted November 12, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to examine the association of food security with the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults.

Methods

Study subjects were 13,454 men and 19,563 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2007~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into food-secure and food-insecure groups using the answers to a self-reported question on food sufficiency of subjects' household. The total and individual flavonoid intakes were calculated by linking 24-h dietary recall data of subjects with a flavonoid database. Mean differences in dietary outcomes by food security status, and major food sources of total flavonoids were examined.

Results

In this cross-sectional study, 5.8% of male adults and 6.6% of female adults were in food insecure households. Mean daily intakes of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins were significantly lower in food-insecure groups than food-secure groups among both male and female adults. The differences were maintained in total flavonoids, flavones, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols after adjusting for total energy intake. Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables were significantly lower in food-insecure groups and the total flavonoid intake from fruits and vegetables was also significantly lower in food-insecure groups. The major food sources of total flavonoids were apples (20.7%), mandarines (12.0%), and tofu (11.5%) in the food-secure group, and apples (14.9%), tofu (13.3%), and mandarines (12.6%) in the food-insecure group.

Conclusion

This study showed that food insecurity was associated with lower intakes of flavonoids and reduced intakes of fruits and vegetables in a representative Korean population.

Keywords: flavonoids; food security; KNHANES

Figures


Fig. 1
Mean intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid density by food security status stratified by gender among Korean adults. 1) "Full" meant able to eat an adequate amount and variety of food, "marginal" meant able to eat an adequate amount but not variety of food, "low" meant sometimes unable to afford enough food, "very low" meant often unable to afford enough food. 2) A is for total flavonoid intake; B is for flavonoid density, obtained by dividing flavonoid intake by 1000 kcal of caloric intake. 3) P-value calculated by weighted GLM is < 0.0001 for both A and B. 4) Small alphabets are used to compare the mean intakes.
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Tables


Table 1
Characteristics of study subjects by food security status
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Table 2
Daily flavonoid intake, and flavonoid density among Korean adults by food security status
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Table 3
Daily food group intake among Korean adults by food security status
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Table 4
Contribution of food groups to the total flavonoid intake among Korean adults by food security status
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Table 5
Top 10 major food items contributing to the total flavonoid intake among Korean adults by food security status
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Notes

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2014R1A2A2A01003138).

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