Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(5) > 1081410

J Nutr Health. 2015 Oct;48(5):407-418. Korean.
Published online October 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of dietary behavior items available in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
A-Hyun Lim,1 Suk-Young Choi,1 Jae-Eun Shim,2 Ji-Yun Hwang,3 Hyun-Kyung Moon,1 and Kirang Kim1
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Chungnam 31116, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.
3Nutrition Education Major, Graduate School of Education, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email:
Received September 15, 2015; Revised October 01, 2015; Accepted October 01, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Given that the indicators related to chronic diseases are important to evaluating goals of the national health policy, the aim of this study was to develop dietary behavior items available in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


The dietary behavior items were developed based on the literature reviews, need assessment of the field, expert focus-group interviews, and expert advisory meeting. Questions for each dietary behavior item were developed by reflecting on environmental, personal, and behavior factors of the ecological frame and then revised through expert focus-group interview and expert advisory meeting. The understanding and reliability of the developed questionnaire were assessed by cognitive interview and test-retest reliability.


The developed items were sodium and salt intake, added and simple sugar intake, enough time to consume a meal for all ages, caffeine drinks and fresh/healthy food intake for children and adolescents, and limited dietary intake, fresh/healthy food intake for seniors. In most questions except some questions on sodium and salt intake, subjects understood over 70% and consistency of responses based on the kappa values was acceptable.


Developed dietary behavior items are expected to be useful for evidence-based nutrition policy, interventions and research targeting dietary patterns through investigating and monitoring dietary behavior patterns.

Keywords: dietary behavior; food behavior survey; eating behavior survey; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


Fig. 1
The development procedure of dietary behavior questionnaire.
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Table 1
General characteristics of participants in the cognitive interview
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Table 2
Candidates of survey items that are not included in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey based on the literature review
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Table 3
Result of need assessment of dietary behavior items for Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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Table 4
The number of questions for dietary behavior items developed by social cognitive theory
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Table 5
Reliability of dietary behavior questionnaires for all subjects
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Table 6
Reliability of dietary behavior questionnaire for children and elders
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Table 7
Dietary behavior questionnaire for all subjects
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Table 8
Dietary behavior questionnaire for children
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Table 9
Dietary behavior questionnaire for elders
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This research was supported by a fund by Research of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014-E3500600).

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