Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(5) > 1081409

J Nutr Health. 2015 Oct;48(5):398-406. Korean.
Published online October 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effect of different levels of xylooligosaccharide in sugar on glycemic index and blood glucose response in healthy adults
Hyekyoung Nam,1 Myungok Kyung,2 Sheungwoo Seo,2 Sangwon Jung,2 and Moon-Jeong Chang1
1Department of Food & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.
2R&D Center, TS Corporation, Incheon 22300, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email:
Received September 24, 2015; Revised October 07, 2015; Accepted October 12, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose containing 2 different levels of xylooligosaccharide on the glycemic index (GI) and blood glucose response in healthy adults.


Healthy adults (4 male participants and 6 female participants, n = 10) were randomized to receive glucose, sucrose, sucrose containing 7% xylooligosaccharide active elements (Xylo 7), or sucrose containing 10% xylooligosaccharide active elements (Xylo 10). Each participant was administrated one of these materials once a week for 8 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed.


We found a reduction in the glycemic response to sucrose that included xylooligosaccharide active elements (Xylo 7 and Xylo 10). The glycemic indices of sucrose, Xylo 7 and Xylo 10 were 68.9, 54.7, and 52.5, respectively. The GI values of Xylo 7 and Xylo 10 were similar to that of foods with low GI. The percentage reduction of GI value caused by sucrose containing xylooligosaccharide active elements was significantly different and dose-dependent as compared to that caused by sucrose alone (p < 0.05). The reduction in the glycemic response to Xylo 7 and Xylo 10 was 21% and 24%, respectively, as compared to the glycemic response to sucrose. The attenuation of the glycemic response to Xylo 10 tended to be higher than that for Xylo 7 when the percentage of body fat was increased.


These results demonstrated that xylooligosaccharide active elements may be effective in protecting humans against overconsumption of sucrose.

Keywords: xylooligosaccharide active element; blood glucose; glycemic index; healthy adults


Fig. 1
Mean blood glucose responses after administration of control food (glucose) and test food (sucrose, Xylo 7 and Xylo 10). Each value is the mean ± SD. Different alphabets at same time are significant (p < 0.05) between groups. Xylo 7: sucrose with 14% xylooligosaccaride powder (active element X2~X7 7%), Xylo 10: sucrose with 20% xylooligosaccaride powder (active element X2~X7 10%)
Click for larger image


Table 1
Test food composition in the clinical trial
Click for larger image

Table 2
Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the clinical trial (n = 10)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Glycemic indices of Xylo 7 and Xylo 10 (n = 10)
Click for larger image

Table 4
The changes in blood glucose variables (n = 10)
Click for larger image


This research was supported by High Value-added Food Technology Development Program (Project number: 313024-03-1-CG000), Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, Republic of Korea.

1. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(4):537–543.
2. Korea Rural Economic Institute. Food balance sheet 2012. Seoul: Korea Rural Economic Institute; 2013.
3. Song S, Lee JE, Song WO, Paik HY, Song Y. Carbohydrate intake and refined-grain consumption are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Korean adult population. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014;114(1):54–62.
4. Shin HL. In: Consumer attitude survey: beverage purchasing behaviors and preference [dissertation]. Seoul: Sejong University; 2010.
5. Latulippe ME, Skoog SM. Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51(7):583–592.
6. Chen MS, Kao CS, Chang CJ, Wu TJ, Fu CC, Chen CJ, Tai TY. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;114(6):723–730.
7. Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després JP, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation 2010;121(11):1356–1364.
8. Yoo H, Kim Y. A study on the characteristics of nutrient intake in metabolic syndrome subjects. Korean J Nutr 2008;41(6):510–517.
9. Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Willett WC, Speizer FE. Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(5):1018–1023.
10. de Koning L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugarsweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(6):1321–1327.
11. Salmerón J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;277(6):472–477.
12. Dallongeville J, Charbonnel B, Desprès JP. Sugar-sweetened beverages and cardiometabolic risk. Presse Med 2011;40(10):910–915.
13. Alonso S, Setser C. Functional replacements for sugars in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 1994;5(5):139–146.
14. Fiordaliso M, Kok N, Desager JP, Goethals F, Deboyser D, Roberfroid M, Delzenne N. Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats. Lipids 1995;30(2):163–167.
15. Lee OS, Rhee IK. The production of xylooligosaccharides with microbial xylanase. Food Ind Nutr 2001;6(1):21–24.
16. Akpinar O, Erdogan K, Bostanci S. Enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharide from selected agricultural wastes. Food Bioprod Process 2009;87(2):145–151.
17. Hsu CK, Liao JW, Chung YC, Hsieh CP, Chan YC. Xylooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides affect the intestinal microbiota and precancerous colonic lesion development in rats. J Nutr 2004;134(6):1523–1528.
18. Moon SH, Lee KS, Kyung MG, Jung SW, Park YJ, Yang CK. Study on the proper D-xylo concentration in sugar mixture to reduce glycemic index (GI) value in the human clinical model. Korean J Food Nutr 2012;25(4):787–792.
19. Kyung M, Choe H, Jung S, Lee K, Jo S, Seo S, Choe K, Yang CK, Yoo SH, Kim Y. Effects of xylooligosaccharide-sugar mixture on glycemic index (GI) and blood glucose response in healthy adults. J Nutr Health 2014;47(4):229–235.
20. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(3):362–366.
21. Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):274S–280S.
22. Brand-Miller JC, Holt SH, Pawlak DB, McMillan J. Glycemic index and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):281S–285S.
23. Wolever TM, Vorster HH, Björck I, Brand-Miller J, Brighenti F, Mann JI, Ramdath DD, Granfeldt Y, Holt S, Perry TL, Venter C, Xiaomei Wu. Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: interlaboratory study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57(3):475–482.
24. Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, Wolever TM. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev 2005;18(1):145–171.
25. Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):5–56.
26. Lee K, Moon S, Jung S, Park YJ, Yoon S, Choe K, Yang C. Glycemic index of sucrose with D-xylose (XF) in humans. Curr Top Nutraceutical Res 2013;11(1/2):35–40.
27. Venter CS, Vorster HH, Cummings JH. Effects of dietary propionate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers. Am J Gastroenterol 1990;85(5):549–553.
28. Lecerf JM, Dépeint F, Clerc E, Dugenet Y, Niamba CN, Rhazi L, Cayzeele A, Abdelnour G, Jaruga A, Younes H, Jacobs H, Lambrey G, Abdelnour AM, Pouillart PR. Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) in combination with inulin modulates both the intestinal environment and immune status in healthy subjects, while XOS alone only shows prebiotic properties. Br J Nutr 2012;108(10):1847–1858.
29. Rodríguez-Cabezas ME, Camuesco D, Arribas B, Garrido-Mesa N, Comalada M, Bailón E, Cueto-Sola M, Utrilla P, Guerra-Hernández E, Pérez-Roca C, Gálvez J, Zarzuelo A. The combination of fructooligosaccharides and resistant starch shows prebiotic additive effects in rats. Clin Nutr 2010;29(6):832–839.
30. Flickinger EA, Wolf BW, Garleb KA, Chow J, Leyer GJ, Johns PW, Fahey GC Jr. Glucose-based oligosaccharides exhibit different in vitro fermentation patterns and affect in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility and microbial populations in dogs. J Nutr 2000;130(5):1267–1273.
31. Younes H, Coudray C, Bellanger J, Demigné C, Rayssiguier Y, Rémésy C. Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats. Br J Nutr 2001;86(4):479–485.
32. Seri K, Sanai K, Matsuo N, Kawakubo K, Xue C, Inoue S. L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses glycemic response after sucrose ingestion in animals. Metabolism 1996;45(11):1368–1374.
33. Bae YJ, Bak YK, Kim B, Kim MS, Lee JH, Sung MK. Coconut-derived D-xylose affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy individuals. Nutr Res Pract 2011;5(6):533–539.
34. Alles MS, de Roos NM, Bakx JC, van de Lisdonk E, Zock PL, Hautvast GA. Consumption of fructooligosaccharides does not favorably affect blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69(1):64–69.
35. Sheu WH, Lee IT, Chen W, Chan YC. Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008;54(5):396–401.
36. Chung YC, Hsu CK, Ko CY, Chan YC. Dietary intake of xylooligosaccharides improves the intestinal microbiota, fecal moisture, and pH value in the elderly. Nutr Res 2007;27(12):756–761.
37. Gobinath D, Madhu AN, Prashant G, Srinivasan K, Prapulla SG. Beneficial effect of xylo-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 2010;104(1):40–47.
38. Yang J, Summanen PH, Henning SM, Hsu M, Lam H, Huang J, Tseng CH, Dowd SE, Finegold SM, Heber D, Li Z. Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Front Physiol 2015;6:216.
39. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Treating obesity in youth: should dietary glycemic load be a consideration? Adv Pediatr 2001;48:179–212.
40. Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Okubo H, Hosoi Y, Horiguchi H, Oguma E, Kayama F. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(5):1161–1169.
41. Salmerón J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;277(6):472–477.
42. Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Wong GS, Josse RG. Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1992;15(4):562–564.
43. Joo GJ, Rhee IK, Kim SO, Rhee SJ. Effect of dietary xylooligosaccharide on indigestion and retarding effect of bile acid movement across a dialysis membrane. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1998;27(4):705–711.
44. Sahyoun NR, Anderson AL, Tylavsky FA, Lee JS, Sellmeyer DE, Harris TB, Health, Aging, and Body Composition StudyDietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(1):126–131.