Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(3) > 1081392

J Nutr Health. 2015 Jun;48(3):248-257. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
A study of total sugar intake by middle school students in Jeju Province
Yang Sook Ko,1 Eun Mi Kim,1 In Sook Chae,1 and Hyun Sook Lee2
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea.
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-051-320-1794, Email:
Received May 13, 2015; Revised May 28, 2015; Accepted June 10, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of this study was to estimate total sugar intake and sugar intake-related dietary habit and nutrient intake of middle school students.


Subjects included 1,184 middle school students (476 males and 708 females) residing in Jeju. This research analyzed daily dietary intakes of subjects using the 24 hour recall method and surveyed the dietary habit related to total sugar intake using questionnaires. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test, t-test, and ANOVA, using the SAS program were used for analysis of data.


The average daily total sugar intake was 60.3 g (male 50.5 g, female 66.9 g). Total sugar intake per meal was 6.5 g (10.8%) from breakfast, 9.0 g (14.9%) from lunch, 11.8 g (19.6%) from dinner, and 33.0 g (54.7%) from snacks. Food groups that contribute to the majority of total sugar intake were grains and their products (23.0 g), milk (11.0 g), fruits and their products (7.3 g), sugars and sweets (6.1 g), and vegetables and their products (5.8 g). In terms of total sugar intakes by cooking methods, desserts showed a greater amount than main and side dishes, and indicated in order of amount as follows: bread and cookies (11.5 g), dairy products (7.5 g), ice cakes (6.2 g), beverages (5.3 g), and fruits (4.5 g). Total sugar consumption was high for rice and side dishes such as noodles (10.2 g), fried foods (2.9 g), stir-fried foods (2.0 g), and cooked rice with seasoning (1.7 g). The daily intake of natural sugar, added sugar, and natural and added sugar was 18.3 g, 35.8 g, and 6.2 g, respectively. The high sugar intake group, which was over 20% of the energy from total sugar intakes, consumed significantly less Fe, Zn, vitamin B6, niacin, and vitamin E than the low sugar intake group, which was below 20%.


Total sugar intake of second graders of middle schools on Jeju Island was 60.3 g/day, mostly obtained from snacks (54.7%). Therefore, nutritional education for proper selection of better snacks and for reduction of dietary sugar intake is needed for middle school students.

Keywords: total sugar intake; middle school student; snack


Table 1
Anthropometric measurements of the middle school students by sex
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Table 2
Mean daily intakes of total sugar and each sugar in middle school students by sex
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Table 3
Mean daily intake of energy and total sugars of meals in middle school students
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Table 4
Food consumption and the total sugar intakes by food groups of middle school students
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Table 5
The total sugar intakes by cooking methods of middle school students
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Table 6
The total sugar intake by the sugar type in middle school students
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Table 7
Mean daily nutrient intakes by the group according to the percentage of energy gained from total sugars in middle school students
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Table 8
Sugar consumption according to score for sweet preference in middle school students
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