Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(3) > 1081390

J Nutr Health. 2015 Jun;48(3):228-235. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
The association of snack consumption, lifestyle factors, and pediatric obesity with dietary behavior patterns in male adolescents
Min-Ji Kim,1 SuJin Song,2 So Hyun Park,3 and YoonJu Song1
1Major of Food and Nutrition, School of Human Ecology, The Catholic University of Korea, Gyeonggi 420-743, Korea.
2Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA.
3Health Center, Osan High School, Seoul 140-823, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-2164-4681, Email:
Received April 23, 2015; Revised May 12, 2015; Accepted May 18, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Along with the adaptation of a Western dietary pattern and low physical activity, pediatric obesity is increasing in Korea, especially for boys. The aim of this study was to identify dietary behavior patterns and examine the snack consumption, dietary habit, and pediatric obesity by pattern groups.


Boys aged 15~19 years were recruited from one high school in Seoul. A questionnaire including dietary behaviors and lifestyle factors was administered and height and weight were measured. A total of 932 boys participated except boys who had missing or incomplete response (n = 30). Three dietary behavior patterns were identified by cluster analysis; 'Healthy pattern', 'Mixed pattern' and 'Unhealthy pattern'.


Snack consumption differed according to dietary behavior patterns group. The healthy and mixed patterns showed higher frequencies of white milk and fruit consumption while the unhealthy pattern as well as the mixed patterns showed higher frequencies of sweetened snack and ice cream consumption. Food availability at home of each food differed according to pattern groups but showed a similar trend with food consumption. Regarding dietary habits, the mixed pattern showed higher proportion of taking dietary supplement and eating dessert while the unhealthy pattern showed lower proportion of eating regular meals and appropriate amount of meals. When the healthy pattern was set as a reference group, the odds ratio of pediatric obesity was 1.11 (CI 0.65-1.87) in the mixed pattern group and 1.88 (CI 1.14-3.10) in the unhealthy pattern group.


In conclusion, dietary behaviors including snack consumption and lifestyle factors were connected. Unbalanced diet and undesirable dietary practice are important determinants in pediatric obesity.

Keywords: adolescents; dietary behavior pattern; snack consumption; lifestyle; obesity


Fig. 1
The odds ratio (95% CI) for pediatric overweight and obesity by dietary behavior patterns.
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Table 1
Three dietary behavior patterns based on 18 items of dietary guidelines for Korean adolescents by cluster analysis
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Table 2
The snack consumption by dietary behavior patterns
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Table 3
The food availability, dietary habit, and lifestyle by dietary behavior patterns
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This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant number NRF-2013R1A1A310359).

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