Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(2) > 1081373

J Nutr Health. 2014 Apr;47(2):89-98. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2014.
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effects of calcium and vitamin D intake level on lipid metabolism in growing rats
Sun-Min Lee,1 Yeon-Joo Lee,1 Eun-Sook Won,2 and Sang-Sun Lee1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea.
2R&D Planning Team, R&D Center, Seoul Dairy Co., Ansan-Si, Kyunggi-Do 425-839, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-2220-1206, Email:
Received January 07, 2014; Revised February 24, 2014; Accepted March 19, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Association of low intake of calcium (Ca) and inadequate vitamin D (VD) status with higher prevalence rates of obesity has been reported. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of different levels of whey Ca and VD intake on lipid metabolism in growing rats.


A total of 56 five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups and fed for five weeks. Ca groups were divided into three levels, low, normal, and high (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%). VD subgroups in the low and high Ca groups were divided into three levels, low, normal, and high (10 IU, 1,000 IU, and 5,000 IU). The effects of Ca and VD on each group were evaluated by two way ANOVA.


Significantly higher amounts of abdominal fat, visceral fat, and epididymal fat were observed in the Low-Ca groups than in the Normal-Ca and High-Ca groups. Serum leptin levels of Low-Ca groups were higher than those of Normal-Ca and High-Ca groups. The highest serum parathyroid hormone concentration was observed in the low Ca·low VD group. The levels of serum 25(OH)D were significantly increased with increasing dietary VD levels. Significantly higher serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were observed in the low Ca groups than in the normal Ca and high Ca groups.


These results indicate that low calcium intake increased serum lipid level and body fat amount.

Keywords: calcium; vitamin D; 25(OH)D; serum lipid profile; fat mass


Table 1
Composition of experimental diets (g/kg diet)
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Table 2
Body weight, weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio (FER) of rats fed different level of calcium and vitamin D
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Table 3
Effect of calcium and vitamin D intake on adipose tissue weight and serum level of leptin in rats
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Table 4
Effect of calcium and vitamin D intake on serum ALP activity and level of iPTH, P, calcium, 25(OH)D in rats
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Table 5
Effect of calcium and vitamin D on lipid profile in rats
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Table 6
Correlation between calcium, vitamin D intake, serum levels of hormones and lipid metabolism index
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