Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(2) > 1081373

Lee, Lee, Won, and Lee: Effects of calcium and vitamin D intake level on lipid metabolism in growing rats

Abstract

Purpose

Association of low intake of calcium (Ca) and inadequate vitamin D (VD) status with higher prevalence rates of obesity has been reported. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of different levels of whey Ca and VD intake on lipid metabolism in growing rats.

Methods

A total of 56 five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups and fed for five weeks. Ca groups were divided into three levels, low, normal, and high (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%). VD subgroups in the low and high Ca groups were divided into three levels, low, normal, and high (10 IU, 1,000 IU, and 5,000 IU). The effects of Ca and VD on each group were evaluated by two way ANOVA.

Results

Significantly higher amounts of abdominal fat, visceral fat, and epididymal fat were observed in the Low-Ca groups than in the Normal-Ca and High-Ca groups. Serum leptin levels of Low-Ca groups were higher than those of Normal-Ca and High-Ca groups. The highest serum parathyroid hormone concentration was observed in the low Ca·low VD group. The levels of serum 25(OH)D were significantly increased with increasing dietary VD levels. Significantly higher serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were observed in the low Ca groups than in the normal Ca and high Ca groups.

Conclusion

These results indicate that low calcium intake increased serum lipid level and body fat amount.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Composition of experimental diets (g/kg diet)
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1) Experimental diet were based on AIN-93G composition. The amount of casein 85 g, corn starch 25 g, maltodextrin 20 g, sucrose 100 g are removed from the diet to add powdered skim milk 230 g.

Table 2
Body weight, weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio (FER) of rats fed different level of calcium and vitamin D
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1) CON: normal Ca normal VD, LC: low Ca, HC: high Ca, LD: low VD, ND: normal VD, HD: high VD 2) Statistical significance was calculated by two- way ANOVA. 3) All values are Mean ± SEM. 4) Food efficiency ratio = weight gain (g)/food intake (g)

Table 3
Effect of calcium and vitamin D intake on adipose tissue weight and serum level of leptin in rats
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1) CON: normal Ca normal VD, LC: low Ca, HC: high Ca, LD: low VD, ND: normal VD, HD: high VD 2) Statistical significance was calculated by two- way ANOVA. 3) All values are Mean ± SEM. 4) Different letters means significant difference at p < 0.05 by one way ANOVA with Duncan's multiple range test.

Table 4
Effect of calcium and vitamin D intake on serum ALP activity and level of iPTH, P, calcium, 25(OH)D in rats
jnh-47-89-i004

1) CON: normal Ca normal VD, LC: low Ca, HC: high Ca, LD: low VD, ND: normal VD, HD: high VD 2) Statistical significance was calculated by two- way ANOVA. 3) ALP: alkaline phosphatase 4) iPTH: intact parathyroid hormone 5) All values are Mean ± SEM. 6) Different letters means significant difference at p < 0.05 by one way ANOVA with Duncan's multiple range test.

Table 5
Effect of calcium and vitamin D on lipid profile in rats
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1) CON: normal Ca normal VD, LC: low Ca, HC: high Ca, LD: low VD, ND: normal VD, HD: high VD 2) Statistical significance was calculated by two- way ANOVA. 3) TG: triglyceride 4) T-C: total cholesterol 5) HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol 6) LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol 7) All values are Mean ± SEM. 8) Different letters means significant difference at p < 0.05 by one way ANOVA with Duncan's multiple range test.

Table 6
Correlation between calcium, vitamin D intake, serum levels of hormones and lipid metabolism index
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1) T-C: total cholesterol 2) TG: triglyceride 3) HDL-C: High density lipoprotein cholesterol 4) LDL-C: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol 5) Abdominal fat, Visceral fat, Epididymal fat (g/100 g b.w)

*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01 by Pearson's correlation coefficient

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