Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(1) > 1081370

J Nutr Health. 2014 Feb;47(1):51-66. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.1.51
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
A study of the major dish group, food group and meal contributing to sodium and nutrient intake in Jeju elementary and middle school students
Yang-Sook Ko, and Hye-Yun Kang
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-64-754-3553, Email: yangsook@jejunu.ac.kr
Received January 03, 2014; Revised January 29, 2014; Accepted February 07, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of sodium intake in the diet according to the kind of meal, food group, and dish group.

Methods

A dietary survey was conducted using the 24-hour recall method from April to May, 2009. The study subjects consisted of 701 elementary and 1,184 middle school students in the Jeju area. Mean sodium intake and the percentage contribution of meals and each dish and food group to daily sodium intake were calculated.

Results

The daily sodium intake was 2,868.4 mg and 3,032.5 mg in elementary and middle school students. For elementary school students, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack provided approximately 18.0%, 35.1%, 32.8%, and 14.1% of total daily sodium intake, and for middle school students, 15.3%, 40.2%, 29.1%, and 15.5%, respectively. Major food groups for sodium intake were spices (1,252.5 mg in elementary, 1158.0 mg in middle school students), vegetables and their products (409.0 mg, 495.6 mg), cereal and grain products (322.4 mg, 647.8 mg), and fish and shellfish (255.3 mg, 336.6 mg). Except cereal and grain products, sodium intake of the food groups mentioned above was greater at lunch and dinner than at breakfast and snack. And, the elementary and middle school students obtained 5.9% and 9.8% of total daily sodium intake from cereal and grain products at snack. Among the 29 dish groups, the highest dish groups contributing to dietary sodium intake were soup and stew and tang/jeongol, consuming 19.8% (elementary school students) and 25.4% (middle school students) of daily sodium intake. The following major dish groups contributing to dietary sodium intake, in order, were kimchi, seasoned vegetables, grilled dish, stir-fried dish, and à la carte. By meals, the percentage of sodium intake from soup, kimchi, stew, fried dish, and stir-fried dish at school lunch was high, from noodles, grilled dish, and à la carte at dinner, and from bakery/snacks and noodles at snack.

Conclusion

Sodium intake from the various side dishes at school lunch was high and noodles and bakery/snacks were popular snack foods in elementary and middle school students in Jeju area. In order to lower the intake of sodium, students need to be educated about eating less soup and choosing better snacks.

Keywords: sodium intake; dish group; meal group; adolescents; Jeju area

Figures


Fig. 1
Mean daily intake percentage of energy and nutrients of each of meals in elementary school students.
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Fig. 2
Mean daily intake percentage of energy and nutrients of each of meals in middle school students.
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Tables


Table 1
Mean daily energy and nutrient intakes of subjects by sex
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Table 2
Mean daily energy and nutrient intakes of subjects by each of meals
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Table 3
Daily Food consumption and mean intake percentage of each of meals in elementary school students
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Table 4
Daily Food consumption and mean intake percentage of each of meals in middle school students
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Table 5
Dish groups contributing to food, dietary sodium and energy intake of elementary school students
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Table 6
Dish groups contributing to food, dietary sodium and energy intake of middle school students
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Notes

This research was supported by the 2013 scientific promotion program funded by Jeju National University.

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