Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(5) > 1081356

J Nutr Health. 2014 Oct;47(5):364-373. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.5.364
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of a mercury database for food commonly consumed by Koreans
Seong-Ah Kim,1 Sangah Shin,1 Jung Won Lee,1 and Hyojee Joung1,2
1Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
2Department of Public Health Nutrition Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2781, Email: hjjoung@snu.ac.kr
Received January 17, 2014; Revised March 24, 2014; Accepted September 29, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop a mercury database for food commonly consumed by Koreans.

Methods

Target foods for a mercury database were selected from dietary survey data of the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Data for mercury contents of foods were collected through literature review. Among 702 food items reported by 24 hr dietary recall method, the contents of mercury for 300 food items were selected with systematic evaluation from the literature, which provided analytical values, and those of 56 food items were imputed by using a conversion factor.

Results

The mercury database developed in this study covered 50.7% of all kinds of consumed foods and 95.1% of total amount of food intake reported by 2007-2009 KNHANES. In the database, the geometric mean of mercury contents in food items was the highest in the fishes and shellfishes group (41.13 µg/kg, n = 101) followed by mushrooms (18.93 µg/kg, n = 12) and seaweeds (5.92 µg/kg, n = 14), and the lowest in the meats group (0.15 µg/kg, n = 17).

Conclusion

The developed mercury database can be used to estimate the dietary mercury exposure of Korean people, and the method for development of a mercury database would be helpful to researchers in development of a new database for other food borne hazardous substances.

Keywords: dietary; mercury; intake; database; exposure

Figures


Fig. 1
Overall flow of developing mercury database.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Example of data description for mercury database of commonly consumed foods among Koreans
Click for larger image


Table 2
Literature sources for mercury content of commonly consumed foods among Koreans
Click for larger image


Table 3
Characteristics of mercury database construction by food groups
Click for larger image


Table 4
Coverage and contents of mercury database by food groups
Click for larger image

References
1. Hassett-Sipple B, Swartout J, Schoeny R, Mahaffey KR, Rice GE. Mercury study report to congress. In: Volume V: health effects of mercury and mercury compounds. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency; 1997.
2. Clarkson TW. Mercury: major issues in environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 1993;100:31–38.
3. Harada M. Congenital Minamata disease: intrauterine methylmercury poisoning. Teratology 1978;18(2):285–288.
4. Marsh DO, Clarkson TW, Cox C, Myers GJ, Amin-Zaki L, Al-Tikriti S. Fetal methylmercury poisoning. Relationship between concentration in single strands of maternal hair and child effects. Arch Neurol 1987;44(10):1017–1022.
5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for mercury. Atlanta (GA): Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 1999.
6. Kim CI. Korean Total diet study - mycotoxins, heavy metals, acrylamide [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2012 [cited 2013 Jul 10].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
7. Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Bodurow CC. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112(5):562–570.
8. Nakagawa R, Yumita Y, Hiromoto M. Total mercury intake from fish and shellfish by Japanese people. Chemosphere 1997;35(12):2909–2913.
9. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2007: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-1) [Internet]. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2008 [cited 2013 Sep 1].
10. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2008: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2) [Internet]. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2009 [cited 2013 Sep 1].
11. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2009: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3) [Internet]. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010 [cited 2013 Sep 1].
12. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guide to the utilization of the data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [Internet]. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010 [cited 2013 Sep 1].
13. Bhagwat SA, Patterson KY, Holden JM. Validation study of the USDA's Data Quality Evaluation System. J Food Compost Anal 2009;22(5):366–372.
14. Choi DW. Dietary Intake and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals (TDS) [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2009 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
15. Kwon YT, Lee JA. Dietary intake and risk assessment of heavy metals in Korean foods. Environ Res 2001;24:33–44.
16. Choi DW. Dietary intake and risk assessment of contaminants in Korean foods. In: The Annual Report of KFDA. Vol 11. Cheongju: Korea Food and Drug Administration; 2007. pp. 542-543.
17. Park SO. Dietary intake and risk assessment of contaminants in Korean foods [Internet]. Cheongju: Korea Food and Drug Administration; 2006 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
18. Kim MH. Survey and risk assessment of heavy metals in mushroom [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2011 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
19. Lee KL. Survey for food contaminants and safety control [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2005 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
20. Kim YJ. Heavy metal monitoring on aquatic products from the east-coast in Gangwon province [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2010 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
21. Kim SH, Ko YS, Im SI, An KA, Lee KS, Kim SC, Jang JW, Kim HA, Lee RK, Park MW, Kim DB. Monitoring of heavy metals in Kimchi and Pickle. In: The Annual Report of KFDA. Vol 11. Cheongju: Korea Food and Drug Administration; 2007. pp. 115-116.
22. Yoon HS. Simultaneous analytical method for mercury species in aquatic food [Internet]. Cheongju: National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation; 2010 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
23. Lee KH. Investigation of heavy metals research on actual state of Chungchongnamdo, Chungchongbukdo area farm produce [Internet]. Cheongju: Korea Food and Drug Administration; 2005 [cited 2013 Jun 20].
Available from: http://rnd.mfds.go.kr/.
24. Kim MH, Lee YD, Park HJ, Park SK, Lee JO. Contents of heavy metals in soybean curd and starch jelly consumed in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2005;37(1):1–5.
25. Chung SY, Kim M, Kim JS, Hong M, Lee JO, Kim CM. Trace metal contents in sugar products and their safety evaluations. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2002;34(6):992–997.
26. Kim M, Kim JS, Sho YS, Chung SY, Lee JO. The study on heavy metal contents in various foods. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2003;35(4):561–567.
27. Joo H, Noh MJ, Yoo JH, Jang YM, Park JS, Kang MH, Kim M. Monitoring total mercury and methylmercury in commonly consumed aquatic foods. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2010;42(3):269–276.
28. Chung SY, Kim JS, Kim EJ, Park SK, Kim M, Hong M, Kim MC, Lee JO. Trace metal contents in tea products and their safety evaluations. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2003;35(5):812–817.
29. No KM, Kang KM, Baek SL, Choi H, Park SK, Kim DS. Monitoring of heavy metal content in alcoholic beverages. J Food Hyg Saf 2010;25(1):24–29.
30. Hu SJ, Kim M, Park SK, Lee JO. Heavy metal contents in ginseng and ginseng products. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2005;37(3):329–333.
31. Hwang YO, Kim SU, Ryu SH, Ham HJ, Park GY, Park SG. Contents of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic in dried marine products. Anal Sci Technol 2009;22(4):336–344.
32. Go MJ, Lee JH, Park EH, Park SW, Kim IK, Ji YA. Monitoring of heavy metals in vegetables in Korea. J Food Hyg Saf 2012;27(4):456–460.
33. Kim M, Chang MI, Chung SY, Sho YS, Hong MK. Trace metal contents in cereals, pulses and potatoes and their safety evaluations. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2000;29(3):364–368.
34. Kim M, Lee YD, Park HJ, Kim EJ, Lee JO. Contents of toxic metals in crustaceans consumed in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2004;36(3):375–378.
35. Kim JH, Lim CW, Kim PJ, Park JH. Heavy metals in shellfishes around the south coast of Korea. J Food Hyg Saf 2003;18(3):125–132.
36. Kim HY, Chung SY, Sho YS, Oh GS, Park S, Suh JH, Lee EJ, Lee YD, Choi WJ, Eom JY, Song MS, Lee JO, Woo GJ. The study on the methylmercury analysis and the monitoring of total mercury and methylmercury in fish. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2005;37(6):882–888.
37. Kim HY, Kim JC, Kim SY, Lee JH, Jang YM, Lee MS, Park JS, Lee KH. Monitoring of heavy metals in fishes in Korea: As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn, Total Hg. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2007;39(4):353–359.
38. Sho YS, Kim J, Chung SY, Kim M, Hong MK. Trace metal contents in fishes and shellfishes and their safety evaluations. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2000;29(4):549–554.
39. Chung SY, Kim MH, Sho YS, Won KP, Hong MK. Trace metal contents in vegetables and their safety evaluations. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2001;30(1):32–36.
40. Yoo CC, Kim DW. Studies on the heavy metal contents in some vegetable sales on markets in Korea. Korean J Food Nutr 2005;18(3):254–264.
41. Lee MK, Park JS, Lim HC, Na HS. Determination of heavy metal contents in medicinal herb. Korean J Food Preserv 2008;15(2):253–260.
42. Choi JD, Jeoung IG. Trace metal contents in cultured and wild fishes from the coastal area of Tongyeoung, Korea and their safety evaluations. J Food Hyg Saf 2005;20(4):205–210.
43. Choi SN, Chung NY. A study on the trace metals in potatoes and root vegetables. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 2003;19(2):223–230.
44. Kim M, Chung SY, Sho YS, Kim MC, Kim CM. Establishments of lead standards through monitoring heavy metals in calcium, chitosan, and propolis health foods. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2001;33(5):525–528.
45. Kim JH, Mok JS, Park HY. Trace metal contents in seaweeds from Korean coastal area. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2005;34(7):1041–1051.
46. Ham HJ. Distribution of hazardous heavy metals(Hg, Cd and Pb) in fishery products, sold at Garak wholesale markets in Seoul. J Food Hyg Saf 2002;17(3):146–151.
47. Heo YS, Kim KJ, Lee MY, Lee SJ, Park SM, Kim JD, Kim OH, Chong HS. A study on the component and heavy metal contents of Myeolchi Aekjeot. Rep Seoul Metrop Gov Res Inst Public Health Environ 1991;2:33–44.
48. Kim SC, Ahn KA, Kim HA, Im SI, Jang JW, Kang NS, Cho CH, Ko YS, Kim DS, Lee SH. The monitoring of total mercury and methylmercury in abyssal fish by GC-ECD; Proceedings of the 41th Korean Society of Analytical Sciences Conference; 2008 Nov 20-21; Pyeongchang. Seoul: Korean Society of Analytical Sciences; 2008. pp. 258.
49. Kwon O, Yang YkFlavonoid database for estimation of flavonoid intake and constructing method thereof. Korea Patent. 10-1294316. 2013 Aug 07.
50. Yang YK, Kim JY, Kwon O. Development of flavonoid database for commonly consumed foods by Koreans. Korean J Nutr 2012;45(3):283–292.
51. Mason RP, Reinfelder JR, Morel FM. Bioaccumulation of mercury and methylmercury. Water Air Soil Pollut 1995;80(1-4):915–921.
52. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Mercury levels in commercial fish and shellfish (1990-2010) [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): U.S. Food and Drug Administration; 2014 [cited 2014 May 10].
53. Sunderland EM, Krabbenhoft DP, Moreau JW, Strode SA, Landing WM. Mercury sources, distribution, and bioavailability in the North Pacific Ocean: insights from data and models. Global Biogeochem Cycles 2009;23(2):GB2010.
54. Kim NS, Lee BK. National estimates of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels in the Korean general adult population. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2011;84(1):53–63.
55. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. Risk assessment guidance for superfund (RAGS), Volume I: human health evaluation manual (Part E, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment) interim [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2004 [cited 2014 Sep 2].